Isaiah mentions “THE Assyrian” a number of times. Is this the last King of the North?
Some scholars believe the literal city of Babylon must be rebuilt Babylon is Iraq.
Assyria Invaded the ten Northern Tribes In before being invaded by Babylon in 612.
Babylon then was invaded by the Medes and Persians in 549.
Is the last Assyrian from Iran I wonder?
Thanks for the questions; they are appreciated. Please be patient with me. I would like to reply to you immediately but that is not usually possible.
First, concerning Babylon; I disagree with those scholars who say that literal Babylon must be rebuilt. It is well intentioned and appears to be Biblical, but it ignores some important history. But first notice that in Revelation 17:5it is not just Babylon, it is ‘Babylon the Great’ which is further described as a “Mystery.” This suggests that it is not just old Babylon being rebuilt or something similar, but something different from that but with the same spirit or way of thinking or ideals. It is here that history and the book of Revelation are a help.
To begin with, some history. The Babylonian priesthood and system was well-established when the Persian king Cyrus took over the city around 540 BC. Following the fall of ancient Babylon to the Medes and Persians (Daniel 5:31), the Emperor Cyrus tolerated all religions. Eventually, however, the Babylonian priests tried to set up their own king. Their base was destroyed by the Persian Xerxes and they were banished from Babylonia and, indeed, the whole kingdom about 485 BC.
“the defeated [Babylonian priests] fled to Asia Minor, and fixed their central college at Pergamos [Turkey], and took the palladium of Babylon, the cubic stone, with them. Here, independent of state control, they carried on the rites of their religion” (William B. Barker, ‘Lares and Penates: or, Cilicia and Its Governors,’ Ingram, Cooke and Co., London, 1853, pp. 232–233) quoted in the journal "Vision" for Summer 2001.)
That is why the Church at Pergamos is told that they "dwell where Satan's throne is" and "where Satan dwells" (Rev. 2:13). So effectively, the Satanically inspired Babylonian system was transferred to Turkey. Therefore, Babylon the Great need not be in the location of Old Babylon but rather near the newer location in Turkey. So for these reasons, Turkey looks increasingly likely to be the country from which Antichrist emerges.
It is in this context that the old Mediterranean trading center of Chalcedon (modern day Istanbul) comes into focus. First, as Revelation states, it is built on 7 hills. Second, it controls many waters. The only access through to the Mediterranean from the Black Sea is the Bosphorus through the center of Istanbul. It controls the Black Sea, the Bosphorus, the Sea of Marmara, the entrance to the Aegean and the Mediterranean. Istanbul (Chalcedon) sits on “many waters”. Furthermore, it is easily possible for ships to stand off and watch her burning (Rev. 18:17).It is impossible for shipmasters to do this for Rome or for old Babylon; both are too far inland.
As far as trade is concerned, Turkey now controls the distribution of oil and gas from the Mid-east and the southern Russian states to the Adriatic & Europe. That is the focus of the energy diagrams I sent you a week or so ago. I can resend them if they have been misplaced. In addition, the Chinese are building the old Silk Route by land and sea and are almost at the point of completion. The map of the land route ends in Istanbul. It refocuses from there to go into Europe. So again that city is becoming important.
You ask about the Assyrian: Micah 5:6 implies he is from the land of Nimrod. It is freely assumed that Babylon is the same city as BabEl in Genesis 10:10, but it need not be. Allen Roberts is a good friend of ours and was one of the people kidnapped in one of the Ararat expeditions in 1991. On a separate occasion he was on an expedition in Turkey, and their time (their Visas) was running out, so they were in a hurry. The route they were taking brought them south of Diyarbakir. As they travelled this route, there was a small village they came to on the edge of a large plain which stretched to the horizon. On this plain they could see the ruins of a number of ziggurats and towards the horizon was one enormous ziggurat. They got out of the car to have a brief look and saw shards of pottery on the ground. When they examined them they found they contained different languages. The name of the village? Cinar (with one of those little marks under the ‘C’ which makes the pronunciation a ‘sh’). We know Allen never went back; he is aging now and has health issues. Why don’t the Turks look at this? They have over 80,000 archaeological sites in their country to examine, and this is just one of them.
The location can be seen on this map. Cinar is just south of Diyarbakir. It is not far from the headwaters of the Tigris River and is in a plain.
[Diyarbakır is one of the largest cities in southeastern Turkey and is often considered the unofficial capital of Northern Kurdistan.
Situated on the banks of the Tigris River, it is shown on this next map.]
The point here is that Nimrod and Assyria extended into Turkey. Furthermore, the king of the North must come from the Seleucid Empire after the breakup of Alexanders kingdom and that had Turkey as its heartland after all the infighting was over.
So the conclusion is that the common meeting place for all these considerations is Turkey, not Babylon or Rome.
Note added by Lambert 12/9/2020:
Remember in Isaiah how Sennacherib from Nineveh, capital of Assyria (=Mosul, Iraq) invaded the Ten Northern tribes in 722 BC and threatened Jerusalem in the days of Hezekiah? (727-721)?
Isaiah prayed and the Angel of the Lord wiped them all out (185,000) overnight, Isaiah 38-39. Sennacherib retreated home to Ninevah but his sons murdered him when he was in the temple of his God. In 605 Nebuchadnezzar rose to power at the Battle of Carchemish. He took Daniel and friends to Babylon about that time. Jerusalem fell in 586 and the Persians took over Babylon in 547 BC.
Jonah preached at Ninevah in 782 BC and their judgment was postponed for 160 years until Nahum, 612 BC.
Mosul is North of Baghdad and Babylon is South of Baghdad. Both are in modern day Iraq. Both on the Euphrates River. So I expect the Assyria will be an invader from Iraq.
Both Sennacherib and Nebuchadnezzar invaded from the same area.
Note in Daniel 11 how Egypt will be a major player in the events surrounding the campaign of Armageddon.
I would say the “king” in Daniel 11:36 will be the next prime minister in Israel. His peace treaty with the Antichrist will fail at midtrib. Ray thought this last prime minister of Israel was the false prophet, the “beast out of the land” In Revelation 13.
The last Assyrian invades at the mid point of the tribulation. This is not leader of the the Gog/Magog invasion which happens right after the Rapture. God destroys those armies. Daniel 11:40 says Armageddon will be initiated by Egypt, with Iraq’s “Assyrian” counterattacking (all in Israel).
I would say the Assyrian is the last King of the North. The Assyrian will overrun Israel and invade even Egypt.
See Ray Stedman on Daniel 11, The Time of the End. Also:The Gog/Magog Invasion
Other Historical Notes
The Ten Northern Tribes of Israel were invaded and taken into captivity by Assyria, then a great evil empire to the East with a capital at Ninevah.
Jerusalem fell 156 years later
605 Battle of Charchemish
19 years before Jerusalem fell
Fall of Babylon
39 years later
Therefore it shall come to pass, when the Lord has performed all His work on Mount Zion and on Jerusalem, that He will say, “I will punish the fruit of the arrogant heart of the king of Assyria, and the glory of his haughty looks.” For he says: “By the strength of my hand I have done it, And by my wisdom, for I am prudent; Also I have removed the boundaries of the people, And have robbed their treasuries; So I have put down the inhabitants like a valiant man. My hand has found like a nest the riches of the people, And as one gathers eggs that are left, I have gathered all the earth; And there was no one who moved his wing, Nor opened his mouth with even a peep.” Shall the ax boast itself against him who chops with it? Or shall the saw exalt itself against him who saws with it? As if a rod could wield itself against those who lift it up, Or as if a staff could lift up, as if it were not wood!
Therefore the Lord, the Lord of hosts,
Will send leanness among his fat ones;
And under his glory
He will kindle a burning
Like the burning of a fire.
So the Light of Israel will be for a fire,
And his Holy One for a flame;
It will burn and devour
His thorns and his briers in one day.
And it will consume the glory of his forest and of his fruitful field,
Both soul and body;
And they will be as when a sick man wastes away.
Then the rest of the trees of his forest
Will be so few in number
That a child may write them.
And it shall come to pass in that day
That the remnant of Israel,
And such as have escaped of the house of Jacob,
Will never again depend on him who defeated them,
But will depend on the Lord, the Holy One of Israel, in truth.
The remnant will return, the remnant of Jacob,
To the Mighty God.
For though your people, O Israel, be as the sand of the sea,
A remnant of them will return;
The destruction decreed shall overflow with righteousness.
For the Lord God of hosts
Will make a determined end
In the midst of all the land.
Therefore thus says the Lord God of hosts: “O My people, who dwell in Zion, do not be afraid of the Assyrian. He shall strike you with a rod and lift up his staff against you, in the manner of Egypt. For yet a very little while and the indignation will cease, as will My anger in their destruction.” And the Lord of hosts will stir up a scourge for him like the slaughter of Midian at the rock of Oreb; as His rod was on the sea, so will He lift it up in the manner of Egypt.
It shall come to pass in that day
That his burden will be taken away from your shoulder,
And his yoke from your neck,
And the yoke will be destroyed because of the anointing oil.
2. The Lord of hosts has sworn, saying, “Surely, as I have thought, so it shall come to pass, And as I have purposed, so it shall stand: That I will break the Assyrian in My land, And on My mountains tread him underfoot. Then his yoke shall be removed from them, And his burden removed from their shoulders. This is the purpose that is purposed against the whole earth, And this is the hand that is stretched out over all the nations. For the Lord of hosts has purposed, And who will annul it? His hand is stretched out, And who will turn it back?” (Isaiah 14:24-27)
3. In that day there will be a highway from Egypt to Assyria, and the Assyrian will come into Egypt and the Egyptian into Assyria, and the Egyptians will serve with the Assyrians.
In that day Israel will be one of three with Egypt and Assyria—a blessing in the midst of the land, whom the Lord of hosts shall bless, saying, “Blessed is Egypt My people, and Assyria the work of My hands, and Israel My inheritance.”
5. Behold, the name of the Lord comes from afar, Burning with His anger, And His burden is heavy; His lips are full of indignation, And His tongue like a devouring fire. His breath is like an overflowing stream, Which reaches up to the neck, To sift the nations with the sieve of futility; And there shall be a bridle in the jaws of the people, Causing them to err. You shall have a song As in the night when a holy festival is kept, And gladness of heart as when one goes with a flute, To come into the mountain of the Lord, To the Mighty One of Israel. The Lord will cause His glorious voice to be heard, And show the descent of His arm, With the indignation of His anger And the flame of a devouring fire, With scattering, tempest, and hailstones. For through the voice of the Lord Assyria will be beaten down, As He strikes with the rod. And in every place where the staff of punishment passes, Which the Lord lays on him, It will be with tambourines and harps; And in battles of brandishing He will fight with it. For Tophet was established of old, Yes, for the king it is prepared. He has made it deep and large; Its pyre is fire with much wood; The breath of the Lord, like a stream of brimstone, Kindles it.
6. For thus the Lord has spoken to me: “As a lion roars, And a young lion over his prey (When a multitude of shepherds is summoned against him, He will not be afraid of their voice Nor be disturbed by their noise), So the Lord of hosts will come down To fight for Mount Zion and for its hill. Like birds flying about, So will the Lord of hosts defend Jerusalem. Defending, He will also deliver it; Passing over, He will preserve it.” Return to Him against whom the children of Israel have deeply revolted. For in that day every man shall throw away his idols of silver and his idols of gold—sin, which your own hands have made for yourselves. “Then Assyria shall fall by a sword not of man, And a sword not of mankind shall devour him. But he shall flee from the sword, And his young men shall become forced labor. He shall cross over to his stronghold for fear, And his princes shall be afraid of the banner,” Says the Lord, Whose fire is in Zion And whose furnace is in Jerusalem. (Isaiah 30:27-33)
7. Behold, a king will reign in righteousness, And princes will rule with justice. A man will be as a hiding place from the wind, And a cover from the tempest, As rivers of water in a dry place, As the shadow of a great rock in a weary land. The eyes of those who see will not be dim, And the ears of those who hear will listen. Also the heart of the rash will understand knowledge, And the tongue of the stammerers will be ready to speak plainly. The foolish person will no longer be called generous, Nor the miser said to be bountiful; For the foolish person will speak foolishness, And his heart will work iniquity: To practice ungodliness, To utter error against the Lord, To keep the hungry unsatisfied, And he will cause the drink of the thirsty to fail. Also the schemes of the schemer are evil; He devises wicked plans To destroy the poor with lying words, Even when the needy speaks justice. But a generous man devises generous things, And by generosity he shall stand. (Isaiah 31:4-32:8)
8. For thus says the Lord God:
“My people went down at first
Into Egypt to dwell there;
Then the Assyrian oppressed them without cause.
Now therefore, what have I here,” says the Lord,
“That My people are taken away for nothing?
Those who rule over them
Make them wail,” says the Lord,
“And My name is blasphemed continually every day.
Therefore My people shall know My name;
Therefore they shall know in that day
That I am He who speaks:
‘Behold, it is I.’ ”
12. “But you, Bethlehem Ephrathah, Though you are little among the thousands of Judah, Yet out of you shall come forth to Me The One to be Ruler in Israel, Whose goings forth are from of old, From everlasting.” Therefore He shall give them up, Until the time that she who is in labor has given birth; Then the remnant of His brethren Shall return to the children of Israel. And He shall stand and feed His flock In the strength of the Lord, In the majesty of the name of the Lord His God; And they shall abide, For now He shall be great To the ends of the earth; And this One shall be peace.
When the Assyrian comes into our land, And when he treads in our palaces, Then we will raise against him Seven shepherds and eight princely men. They shall waste with the sword the land of Assyria, And the land of Nimrod at its entrances; Thus He shall deliver us from the Assyrian, When he comes into our land And when he treads within our borders. Then the remnant of Jacob Shall be in the midst of many peoples, Like dew from the Lord, Like showers on the grass, That tarry for no man Nor wait for the sons of men. And the remnant of Jacob Shall be among the Gentiles, In the midst of many peoples, Like a lion among the beasts of the forest, Like a young lion among flocks of sheep, Who, if he passes through, Both treads down and tears in pieces, And none can deliver. Your hand shall be lifted against your adversaries, And all your enemies shall be cut off.
“And it shall be in that day,” says the Lord, “That I will cut off your horses from your midst And destroy your chariots. I will cut off the cities of your land And throw down all your strongholds. I will cut off sorceries from your hand, And you shall have no soothsayers. Your carved images I will also cut off, And your sacred pillars from your midst; You shall no more worship the work of your hands; I will pluck your wooden images from your midst; Thus I will destroy your cities. And I will execute vengeance in anger and fury On the nations that have not heard.” (Micah 5:2-15)
Israel Carried Captive to Assyria
Now the king of Assyria went throughout all the land, and went up to Samaria and besieged it for three years. In the ninth year of Hoshea, the king of Assyria took Samaria and carried Israel away to Assyria, and placed them in Halah and by the Habor, the River of Gozan, and in the cities of the Medes.
For so it was that the children of Israel had sinned against the Lord their God, who had brought them up out of the land of Egypt, from under the hand of Pharaoh king of Egypt; and they had feared other gods, and had walked in the statutes of the nations whom the Lord had cast out from before the children of Israel, and of the kings of Israel, which they had made. Also the children of Israel secretly did against the Lord their God things that were not right, and they built for themselves high places in all their cities, from watchtower to fortified city. They set up for themselves sacred pillars and wooden images on every high hill and under every green tree. There they burned incense on all the high places, like the nations whom the Lord had carried away before them; and they did wicked things to provoke the Lord to anger, for they served idols, of which the Lord had said to them, “You shall not do this thing.”
Yet the Lord testified against Israel and against Judah, by all of His prophets, every seer, saying, “Turn from your evil ways, and keep My commandments and My statutes, according to all the law which I commanded your fathers, and which I sent to you by My servants the prophets.” Nevertheless they would not hear, but stiffened their necks, like the necks of their fathers, who did not believe in the Lord their God. And they rejected His statutes and His covenant that He had made with their fathers, and His testimonies which He had testified against them; they followed idols, became idolaters, and went after the nations who were all around them, concerning whom the Lord had charged them that they should not do like them. So they left all the commandments of the Lord their God, made for themselves a molded image and two calves, made a wooden image and worshiped all the host of heaven, and served Baal. And they caused their sons and daughters to pass through the fire, practiced witchcraft and soothsaying, and sold themselves to do evil in the sight of the Lord, to provoke Him to anger. Therefore the Lord was very angry with Israel, and removed them from His sight; there was none left but the tribe of Judah alone.
Also Judah did not keep the commandments of the Lord their God, but walked in the statutes of Israel which they made. And the Lord rejected all the descendants of Israel, afflicted them, and delivered them into the hand of plunderers, until He had cast them from His sight. For He tore Israel from the house of David, and they made Jeroboam the son of Nebat king. Then Jeroboam drove Israel from following the Lord, and made them commit a great sin. For the children of Israel walked in all the sins of Jeroboam which he did; they did not depart from them, until the Lord removed Israel out of His sight, as He had said by all His servants the prophets. So Israel was carried away from their own land to Assyria, as it is to this day.
Assyria Resettles Samaria
Then the king of Assyria brought people from Babylon, Cuthah, Ava, Hamath, and from Sepharvaim, and placed them in the cities of Samaria instead of the children of Israel; and they took possession of Samaria and dwelt in its cities. And it was so, at the beginning of their dwelling there, that they did not fear the Lord; therefore the Lord sent lions among them, which killed some of them. (2 Kings 17:5-25)
Sennacherib was the king of Assyria from 705 BC to 681 BC. He is principally remembered for his military campaigns against Babylon and Judah, and for his building programs – most notably at the Assyrian capital of Nineveh. He was assassinated in obscure circumstances in 681 BC, apparently by his eldest son.
Cavalry use first recorded by Tukulti Ninurta II
Collapse of Ancient Assyria
In 539 BC, the Neo-Babylonian Empire fell to Cyrus the Great, king of Persia, with a military engagement known as the Battle of Opis. Babylon's walls were considered impenetrable. The only way into the city was through one of its many gates or through the Euphrates River. Metal grates were installed underwater, allowing the river to flow through the city walls while preventing intrusion. The Persians devised a plan to enter the city via the river. During a Babylonian national feast, Cyrus' troops diverted the Euphrates River upstream, allowing Cyrus' soldiers to enter the city through the lowered water. The Persian army conquered the outlying areas of the city while the majority of Babylonians at the city center were unaware of the breach. The account was elaborated upon by Herodotus and is also mentioned in parts of the Hebrew Bible.(Herodotus also described a moat, an enormously tall and broad wall cemented with bitumen and with buildings on top, and a hundred gates to the city. He also writes that the Babylonians wear turbans and perfume and bury their dead in honey, that they practice ritual prostitution, and that three tribes among them eat nothing but fish. The hundred gates can be considered a reference to Homer, and following the pronouncement of Archibald Henry Sayce in 1883, Herodotus' account of Babylon has largely been considered to represent Greek folklore rather than an authentic voyage to Babylon. However, recently, Dalley and others have suggested taking Herodotus' account seriously.) According to 2 Chronicles 36 of the Hebrew Bible, Cyrus later issued a decree permitting captive people, including the Jews, to return to their own lands. Text found on the Cyrus Cylinder has traditionally been seen by biblical scholars as corroborative evidence of this policy, although the interpretation is disputed because the text only identifies Mesopotamian sanctuaries but makes no mention of Jews, Jerusalem, or Judea.
Under Cyrus and the subsequent Persian king Darius I, Babylon became the capital city of the 9th Satrapy (Babylonia in the south and Athura in the north), as well as a center of learning and scientific advancement. In Achaemenid Persia, the ancient Babylonian arts of astronomy and mathematics were revitalized, and Babylonian scholars completed maps of constellations. The city became the administrative capital of the Persian Empire and remained prominent for over two centuries. Many important archaeological discoveries have been made that can provide a better understanding of that era. 
The early Persian kings had attempted to maintain the religious ceremonies of Marduk, but by the reign of Darius III, over-taxation and the strain of numerous wars led to a deterioration of Babylon's main shrines and canals, and the destabilization of the surrounding region. There were numerous attempts at rebellion and in 522 BC (Nebuchadnezzar III), 521 BC (Nebuchadnezzar IV) and 482 BC (Bel-shimani and Shamash-eriba) native Babylonian kings briefly regained independence. However these revolts were quickly repressed and Babylon remained under Persian rule for two centuries, until Alexander the Great's entry in 331 BC.
Kings of Israel and Judah
Updated March 1, 2020, December 9, 2020.
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