Table A. Velocity of Light Measurements 1675-1983 Calc 16 3rd Revision Calc 16 rev
Master Data Set: 195 Values [Corrections by AM on 11/5/92] Experimenter Method Positive Negative
#
Experimenter Date c, km/sec error, Value - current No. obs. Method Comments Type Outlier Reject Reject (Xi - Xi+1)sqd (Xi-Xav) (X-Xav)sqd Run No. Run n1 Run n2
1 Roemer-Chaffin 1675 320,000 8500 20207.542 50 1 from rms error R 19711.33809 388536849.4 1 1
2 Roemer-Goldstein (1) 1675 300,000 1500 207.542 50 1 1973 Goldstein published P 400000000 -288.6619072 83325.69666 2 2
3 Roemer-Goldstein (2) 1675 292,000 5400 -7792.458 50 1 Goldstein corrects 1973 data R 64000000 -8288.661907 68701916.21 2 2
4 Roemer-Mammel 1675 317,700 2700 17907.542 50 1 1983 calculation R 660490000 17411.33809 303154694.2 3 3
5 Roemer-Setterfield 1675 307,500 5400 7707.542 50 1 Setterfield's reworking R 104040000 7211.338093 52003397.09 3 3
6 Cassini 1693 352,000 18000 52207.542 50 1 uncorrected P 1980250000 51711.33809 2674062487 3 3
7 Bradley (first accepted) (KO) 1727 303,430 750 3637.542 800 2 8 stars 1726-1727 P 2359044900 3141.338093 9868005.013 3 3
8 Auwers (Kew) 1727 301,416 1070 1623.542 800 2 8 stars, corrected R* 4056196 1127.338093 1270891.176 3 3
9 Newcomb 1727 299,289 1750 -503.458 800 2 8 stars, corrected R 4524129 -999.6619072 999323.9287 4 4
10 Delambre (definitive) 1738 303,320 65 3527.542 1000 1 All obs. 1667-1809 P 16248961 3031.338093 9189010.633 5 5
11 Bradley (1726-1754) 1740 300,650 750 857.542 2300 2 24 stars P 7128900 361.3380928 130565.2173 5 5
12 Auwers (Wanstead) 1727-47 300,313 920 520.542 700 2 14 stars, weighted mean R* 113569 24.33809282 592.3427621 5 5
13 Busch 1727-47 303,434 750 3641.542 800 2 8 stars, corrected R 9740641 3145.338093 9893151.718 5 5
14 Bessel (GO) 1750-54 300,093 1150 300.542 250 2 Gamma Draconis R* 11162281 -195.6619072 38283.58192 6 6
15 Peters 1750-54 299,406 1150 -386.458 800 2 8 stars, corrected R 471969 -882.6619072 779092.0424 6 6
16 Martin 1759 303,440 350 3647.542 50 1 quoted to 0.5 sec. P 16273156 3151.338093 9930931.775 7 7
17 Encyclopaedia Britannica 1771 302,220 620 2427.542 50 1 Standard value S 1488400 1931.338093 3730066.829 7 7
18 Lindenau (1750-1816) 1783 300,460 160 667.542 330 2 Polaris: many sites P 3097600 171.3380928 29356.74205 7 7
19 Folk-Struve (PO) 1841 300,340 120 547.542 50 2 5 stars 1840-1842 P 14400 51.33809282 2635.599774 7 7
20 Struve (definitive) PO 1841 300,270 250 477.542 298 2 as revised in 1853 R* 4900 -18.66190718 348.2667796 8 8
21 Struve (PO) 1843 300,250 160 457.542 200 2 corrected P 400 -38.66190718 1494.743067 8 8
22 Lindhagen-Schweizer (PO) 1843 299,980 180 187.542 50 2 corrected P 72900 -308.6619072 95272.17294 8 8
23 Fizeau (Journal value) 1849.5 315,300 10000 15507.542 14 3 Base = 8633 meters P 234702400 15011.33809 225340271.3 9 9
24 Fizeau. (textbook value) 1849.5 313,300 10000 13507.542 14 3 'rough approximation' R 4000000 13011.33809 169294919 9 9
25 Fizeau (often omitted) 1855 305,650 5000 5857.542 25 3 only quoted 1927 S 58522500 5361.338093 28743946.15 9 9
26 Fizeau (bad citation?) 1855 298,000 5000 -1792.458 25 3 Foucault 1862? S 58522500 -2288.661907 5237973.325 10 10
27 Weber/Kohlrausch 1856 310,700 20000 10907.542 33 7 Q of E method P 161290000 10411.33809 108395960.9 11 11
28 Nyren-Peters (PO) 1858 300,030 190 237.542 50 2 corrected P 113848900 -258.6619072 66905.98223 12 12
29 Glasenapp (1848-1873) 1861 300,050 150 257.542 320 1 reworked, 320 eclipses P 400 -238.6619072 56959.50594 12 12
30 Glasenapp-Newcomb 1861 300,096 150 303.542 320 1 Newcomb's reworking R 2116 -192.6619072 37118.61048 12 12
31 Glasenapp-Kulikov 1861 299,904 150 111.542 320 1 Kulikov's reworking R 36864 -384.6619072 147964.7828 12 12
32 Foucault (P. rejected) 1862.8 298,000 500 -1792.458 80 4 B = 20 m, D = 0.7 mm. P 3625216 -2288.661907 5237973.325 12 12
33  Newcomb (1862-1867) (W0)  1864.5 299,870 130 77.542 250 2 weighted average P 3496900 -418.6619072 175277.7925 12 12
34 Gylden (PO) 1866.5 301,280 200 1487.542 50 2 corrected P 1988100 991.3380928 982751.2143 13 13
35 Nyren/Gylden (PO) 1868 299,660 200 -132.458 50 2 corrected P 2624400 -628.6619072 395215.7935 14 14
36 Maxwell 1868 284,000 20000 -15792.458 12 7 Electrometric method. P 245235600 -16288.66191 265320506.7 14 14
37 W.Thomson/King 1869 280,900 8300 -18892.458 33 7 Electrometric method. P 9610000 -19388.66191 375920210.6 14 14
38 Nyren-Wagner 1861-1879 1870 299,980 60 187.542 950 2 best by this method P 364046400 -308.6619072 95272.17294 14 14
39 Cornu (Rejected) 1872 298,500 1000 -1292.458 658 3 'crude apparatus' P 2190400 -1788.661907 3199311.418 14 14
40 Nyren (PO) 1873 299,810 200 17.542 50 2 corrected P 1716100 -478.6619072 229117.2214 14 14
41 McKichan 1874 289,700 6800 -10092.458 33 7 Electrometric method. P 102212100 -10588.66191 112119761 14 14
42 Cornu 1874.8 300,400 300 607.542 208 3 working to 4 figs. P 114490000 111.3380928 12396.17091 15 15
43 Cornu-Helmert 1874.8 299,990 200 197.542 208 3 Base = 22910 meters R 168100 -298.6619072 89198.9348 16 16
44 Cornu-Dorsey 1874.8 299,900 200 107.542 208 3 revision in 1944 R* 8100 -388.6619072 151058.0781 16 16
45 Harvard (1844-1909) 1876.5 299,921 13 128.542 500 1 official reduction P 441 -367.6619072 135175.278 16 16
46 Sampson (1844-1909) 1876.5 300,011 13 218.542 500 1 1909 reworking R 8100 -277.6619072 77096.1347 16 16
47 Michelson (rejected) 1878 300,140 480 347.542 10 4 B = 152.4 m, D = 7.5 mm P 16641 -148.6619072 22100.36265 16 16
48 Rowland 1879 298,400 3400 -1392.458 33 7 Q of E method P 3027600 -1888.661907 3567043.8 16 16
49 Hockin 1879 296,700 3000 -3092.458 33 7 Capacities method P 2890000 -3588.661907 12878494.28 16 16
50 Ayrton/Perry 1879 296,000 3000 -3792.458 33 7 Capacities method P 490000 -4288.661907 18392620.95 16 16
51 Michelson 1879.5 299990 200 197.542 1000 4 Birge's value? R 15920100 -298.6619072 89198.9348 16 16
52 Michelson 1879.5 299,910 50 117.542 1000 4 B = 605.4 m, D = 13.32 cm. P 6400 -378.6619072 143384.8399 16 16
53 Michelson-Dorsey 1879.5 299,900 200 107.542 1000 4 Dorsey's correction R 100 -388.6619072 151058.0781 16 16
54 Nyren (PO) 1879.5 299,660 200 -132.458 50 2 corrected P 57600 -628.6619072 395215.7935 16 16
55 Young/Forbes (P. reject) 1880 301,382 2000 1589.542 12 3 Base = 5484 meters P 2965284 1093.338093 1195388.185 17 17
56 Shida 1880 295,500 3000 -4292.458 33 7 Electrometric method. P 34597924 -4788.661907 22931282.86 18 18
57 Nyren (PO) 1880.5 299,700 130 -92.458 50 2 corrected P 17640000 -588.6619072 346522.841 18 18
58 Stoletov 1881 299,000 2000 -792.458 33 7 Capacities method P 490000 -1288.661907 1660649.511 18 18
59 Newcomb (doubtful av.) 1881.8 299,810 50 17.542 189 4 B = 2550.95 m, D = 18 cm P 656100 -478.6619072 229117.2214 18 18
60 Newcomb-Dorsey 1881.8 299,780 80 -12.458 ? 4 Meas. rejected by Newcomb R 900 -508.6619072 258736.9358 18 18
61 Exner 1882 287,000 23000 -12792.458 33 7 Electrometric method. P 163328400 -13288.66191 176588535.3 18 18
62 Newcomb (full approval) 1882.7 299,860 30 67.542 66 4 B = 3721.21 m, D = 18 cm P 165379600 -428.6619072 183751.0307 18 18
63 Michelson 1882.8 299,853 60 60.542 563 4 B = 624.65 m, D = 13.8 cm. P 49 -435.6619072 189801.2974 18 18
64 Michelson-Dorsey 1882.8 299,850 250 57.542 563 4 Dorsey's correction R 9 -438.6619072 192424.2688 18 18
65 Nyren (definitive) 1883 299,850 90 57.542 2000 2 Obs. of 24 stars P 0 -438.6619072 192424.2688 18 18
66 J.J.Thomson 1883 296,400 20000 -3392.458 33 7 Capacities method P 11902500 -3888.661907 15121691.43 18 18
67 Klemencic 1884 301,880 1500 2087.542 33 7 Capacities method P 30030400 1591.338093 2532356.926 19 19
68 Colley 1886 301,500 6000 1707.542 33 7 E.O. method P 144400 1211.338093 1467339.975 19 19
69 Himstedt 1887 300,570 750 777.542 33 7 Capacities method P 864900 281.3380928 79151.12247 19 19
70 Thomson et al. 1888 292,000 5250 -7792.458 33 7 Electrometric method. P 73444900 -8288.661907 68701916.21 20 20
71 W.Thomson 1889 300,500 1000 707.542 33 7 Electrometric method. P 72250000 211.3380928 44663.78948 21 21
72 Rosa 1889 300,000 800 207.542 33 7 Capacities method P 250000 -288.6619072 83325.69666 22 22
73 Doolittle (FO) 1889.5 300,460 130 667.542 1445 2 Zenith telescope P 211600 171.3380928 29356.74205 23 23
74 Marcuse (BO) 1889.5 300,100 180 307.542 50 2 corrected P 129600 -188.6619072 35593.31522 24 24
75 Kustner (BO) 1889.5 300,100 260 307.542 50 2 corrected P 0 -188.6619072 35593.31522 24 24
76 J.J.Thomson/Searle 1890 299,600 600 -192.458 23 7 Capacities method P 250000 -688.6619072 474255.2224 24 24
77 Comstock 1890.5 300,560 170 767.542 50 2 18 star pairs P 921600 271.3380928 73624.36062 25 25
78 Blondlot 1891 302,200 8500 2407.542 12 6 line base = 25 m. P 2689600 1911.338093 3653213.305 25 25
79 Pellat 1891 300,920 600 1127.542 33 7 Electrometric method. P 1638400 631.3380928 398587.7874 25 25
80 Preston (HO) 1891.5 300,750 730 957.542 50 2 0.05 arc sec error P 28900 461.3380928 212832.8359 25 25
81 Becker (SO) 1891.5 300,390 200 597.542 50 2 corrected P 129600 101.3380928 10269.40906 25 25
82 Marcuse (BO) 1891.5 299,870 130 77.542 50 2 corrected P 270400 -418.6619072 175277.7925 26 26
83 Batterman (BO) 1891.5 299,850 170 57.542 50 2 corrected P 400 -438.6619072 192424.2688 26 26
84 Chandler (BO) 1891.5 299,850 170 57.542 50 2 corrected P 0 -438.6619072 192424.2688 26 26
85 Abraham 1892 299,850 350 57.542 33 7 Capacities method P 0 -438.6619072 192424.2688 26 26
86 Becker (SO) 1892.5 300,320 180 527.542 50 2 corrected P 220900 31.33809282 982.0760616 26 26
87 Davidson (SFO) 1893 300,250 200 457.542 50 2 corrected P 4900 -38.66190718 1494.743067 26 26
88 Blondlot 1893 297,200 5500 -2592.458 8 6 line base = 1029 m. P 9302500 -3088.661907 9539832.377 26 26
89 Rhys/Davis (FO) 1894.5 300,430 190 637.542 50 2 Talcott's method P 10432900 141.3380928 19976.45648 27 27
90 Trowbridge/Duane 1895 300,395 5600 602.542 7 6 line base = 58.6 m. P 1225 106.3380928 11307.78998 27 27
91 Rhys/Jacobi/Davis (FO) 1896 300,390 150 597.542 50 2 corrected P 25 101.3380928 10269.40906 27 27
92 Rhys/Davis (FO) 1896.5 300,390 170 597.542 50 2 corrected P 0 101.3380928 10269.40906 27 27
93 Hurmuzescu 1897 300,100 300 307.542 65 7 Electrometric method P 84100 -188.6619072 35593.31522 28 28
94 Saunders 1897 299,795 3300 2.542 6 6 line = 1101-2223 m. P 93025 -493.6619072 243702.0786 28 28
95 Grachev/Kowalski (KO) 1897 300,150 100 357.542 16038 2 latitude studies P 126025 -138.6619072 19227.1245 28 28
96 Webster 1898 302,590 3000 2797.542 33 7 E.O. method P 5953600 2301.338093 5296157.017 29 29
97 Perot/Fabry 1898 299,730 300 -62.458 33 7 Electrometric method P 8179600 -558.6619072 312103.1265 30 30
98 Rhys/Davis (FO) 1898.5 300,390 170 597.542 50 2 corrected P 435600 101.3380928 10269.40906 31 31
99 Grachev (KO) 1898.5 299,600 100 -192.458 50 2 corrected P 624100 -688.6619072 474255.2224 32 32
100 Lodge/Glazebrook 1899 300,900 12000 1107.542 33 7 E.O. method P 1690000 611.3380928 373734.2637 33 33
101 Grachev (KO) 1899 300,330 100 537.542 50 2 corrected P 324900 41.33809282 1708.837918 33 33
102 Maclean 1899 299,195 5000 -597.458 8 6 Free space method P 1288225 -1093.661907 1196096.367 34 34
103 Perrotin-Prim (rejected) 1900.4 300,032 215 239.542 770 3 discarded analysis P 700569 -256.6619072 65875.3346 34 34
104 Perrotin/Prim-Dorsey 1900.4 300,000 1000 207.542 ? 2 Dorsey, P/P rejected data R 1024 -288.6619072 83325.69666 34 34
105 Perrotin 1900.4 299,900 80 107.542 770 3 Base = 11862.2 m. R* 10000 -388.6619072 151058.0781 34 34
106 Internat. Lat. Service 1900.5 299,700 60 -92.458 50 2 corrected P 40000 -588.6619072 346522.841 34 34
107 Perrotin, 1900.4-1902.4 1901.4 299,880 50 87.542 2002 3 mean of two series S 32400 -408.6619072 167004.5544 34 34
108 Doolittle (FO) 1901.5 299,760 130 -32.458 50 2 corrected P 14400 -528.6619072 279483.4121 34 34
109 Internat Lat. Service 1901.5 299,660 60 -132.458 50 2 corrected P 10000 -628.6619072 395215.7935 34 34
110 Perrotin-Prim 1902.4 299,901 84 108.542 1232 3 analysis retained P 58081 -387.6619072 150281.7543 34 34
111 Perrotin 1902.4 299,860 80 67.542 1233 3 Base = 45950.7 m. R* 1681 -428.6619072 183751.0307 34 34
112 Doolittle (FO) 1903 299,590 130 -202.458 50 2 corrected P 72900 -698.6619072 488128.4605 34 34
113 Ogburn (FO) 1904.5 300,480 170 687.542 50 2 corrected P 792100 191.3380928 36610.26576 35 35
114 Doolittle (PO) 1905 300,080 130 287.542 50 2 weighted average P 160000 -208.6619072 43539.79151 36 36
115 Bonsdorf (PO) 1905 299,710 100 -82.458 50 2 corrected P 136900 -578.6619072 334849.6028 36 36
116 Rosa-Dorsey 1906 299,710 10 -82.458 869 7 no humidity correction P 0 -578.6619072 334849.6028 36 36
117 Rosa/Dorsey 1906 299,803 30 10.542 869 7 Best for item 7; F&E R* 8649 -485.6619072 235867.4881 36 36
118 Doolittle (FO) 1906 299,760 130 -32.458 50 2 corrected P 1849 -528.6619072 279483.4121 36 36
119 Bonsdorf et al. (PO) 1906.5 299,650 120 -142.458 50 2 corrected P 12100 -638.6619072 407889.0317 36 36
120 Doolittle (FO) 1907 299,670 130 -122.458 50 2 corrected P 400 -618.6619072 382742.5554 36 36
121 Bayswater (I.L.S.) 1907 299,780 100 -12.458 50 2 corrected P 12100 -508.6619072 258736.9358 36 36
122 Orlov (PO) 1907.5 300,090 120 297.542 50 2 corrected P 96100 -198.6619072 39466.55336 36 36
123 Internat. Lat. Service 1907.5 299,590 60 -202.458 50 2 corrected P 250000 -698.6619072 488128.4605 36 36
124 Doolittte (FO) 1908 299,850 180 57.542 50 2 corrected P 67600 -438.6619072 192424.2688 36 36
125 Semenov (PO) 1908.5 299,690 150 -102.458 50 2 corrected P 25600 -598.6619072 358396.0791 36 36
126 Internat. Lat. Service 1908.5 299,630 60 -162.458 50 2 corrected P 3600 -658.6619072 433835.508 36 36
127 Doolittle (FO) 1909 299,660 130 -132.458 50 2 corrected P 900 -628.6619072 395215.7935 36 36
128 Zemtsov (PO) 1909.5 299,650 200 -142.458 50 2 corrected P 100 -638.6619072 407889.0317 36 36
129 Semenov (PO) 1909.5 299,840 190 47.542 50 2 corrected P 36100 -448.6619072 201297.507 36 36
130 Doolittle (PO) 1910 299,940 120 147.542 50 2 corrected P 10000 -348.6619072 121565.1255 36 36
131 Numerov (PO) 1914 299,870 200 77.542 50 2 corrected P 4900 -418.6619072 175277.7925 36 36
132 Tsimmerman (PO) 1916 299,750 200 -42.458 50 2 corrected P 14400 -538.6619072 290156.6502 36 36
133 Kulikov (PO) 1922 299,780 60 -12.458 28542 2 corrected P 900 -508.6619072 258736.9358 36 36
134 Mercier 1923 299,700 30 -92.458 60 6 no humidity correction P 6400 -588.6619072 346522.841 36 36
135 Mercier 1923 299,795 30 2.542 60 6 Best for item 6. F&E p48 R* 9025 -493.6619072 243702.0786 36 36
136 Spencer-Jones (GO) 1923.5 299,980 60 187.542 50 2 corrected P 34225 -308.6619072 95272.17294 36 36
137 Michelson 1924.6 299,802 30 9.542 80 5 Base = 35426.23 m. P 31684 -486.6619072 236839.8119 36 36
138 Michelson-Dorsey 1924.6 299,800 70 7.542 80 5 Dorsey's correction R 4 -488.6619072 238790.4595 36 36
139 Michelson 1926.5 299,796 15 3.542 1600 5 Base = 35426.23 m. P 16 -492.6619072 242715.7548 36 36
140 Berg (PO) 1926.5 299,890 200 97.542 50 2 corrected P 8836 -398.6619072 158931.3162 36 36
141 Michelson-Birge 1926.5 299,798 15 5.542 1600 5 Birge's correction R* 8464 -490.6619072 240749.1072 36 36
142 Spencer-Jones, indirect 1928 300,090 150 297.542 50 2 radial velocities P 85264 -198.6619072 39466.55336 36 36
143 Mittelstaedt 1928 299,778 10 -14.458 775 8 uncorrected P 97344 -510.6619072 260775.5834 36 36
144 Mittelstaedt-Birge 1928 299,786 10 -6.458 775 8 Birge's correction R* 64 -502.6619072 252668.9929 36 36
145 Spencer-Jones, indirect 1930.5 299,630 60 -162.458 50 2 Eros observations P 24336 -658.6619072 433835.508 36 36
146 Pease/Pearson 1932.5 299,774 10 -18.458 2885 5 Base = 1610.4 m. P 20736 -514.6619072 264876.8787 36 36
147 Sollenberger (W0) 1933 300,420 60 627.542 50 2 1915-1951 (zenith) P 417316 131.3380928 17249.69463 37 37
148 Romanskaya (PO) 1935 299,790 100 -2.458 14783 2 corrected P 396900 -498.6619072 248663.6977 38 38
149 Rabe, indirect 1935.5 299,920 60 127.542 50 2 gravitational P 16900 -368.6619072 135911.6018 38 38
150 Anderson 1936.8 299,771 10 -21.458 651 8 systematic error P 22201 -517.6619072 267973.8501 38 38
151 Anderson-Birge 1936.8 299,771 10 -21.458 651 8 Birge's correction R* 0 -517.6619072 267973.8501 38 38
152 Httel 1937 299,768 10 -24.458 135 8 systematic error P 9 -520.6619072 271088.8216 38 38
153 Httel-Birge 1937 299,771 10 -21.458 ? 8 Birge's correction R* 9 -517.6619072 267973.8501 38 38
154 Anderson 1940 299,776 10 -16.458 2895 8 systematic error P 25 -512.6619072 262822.2311 38 38
155 Essen/Gordon-Smith 1947 299,798 3 5.542 3 9 P 484 -490.6619072 240749.1072 38 38
156 Essen/Gordon-Smith 1947 299,792 3 -0.458 4 9 P 36 -496.6619072 246673.05 38 38
157 Jones 1947 299,687 25 -105.458 50 10 Not in vacuo P 11025 -601.6619072 361997.0506 38 38
158 Smith, Franklin, Whiting 1947 299,695 50 -97.458 50 10 Not in vacuo P 64 -593.6619072 352434.46 38 38
159 Jones-Cornford 1949 299,701 25 -91.458 50 10 Not in vacuo P 36 -587.6619072 345346.5171 38 38
160 Bergstrand 1949 299,796 2 3.542 72 11 P 9025 -492.6619072 242715.7548 38 38
161 Aslakson 1949 299,792.4 1.4 -0.058 192 10 P 12.96 -496.2619072 246275.8805 38 38
162 Hansen/Bol 1950 299,794.3 1.2 1.842 2 9 P 3.61 -494.3619072 244393.6953 38 38
163 Bergstrand 1950 299,793.1 0.26 0.642 58 11 P 1.44 -495.5619072 245581.6038 38 38
164 Essen 1950 299,792.5 1 0.042 5 9 P 0.36 -496.1619072 246176.6381 38 38
165 McKinley 1950 299,780.0 70 -12.458 100 18 spread of 500 km/sec P 156.25 -508.6619072 258736.9358 38 38
166 Houstoun 1950 299,775.0 9 -17.458 20 18 spread of 180 km/sec P 25 -513.6619072 263848.5549 38 38
167 Aslakson 1951 299,794.2 1.4 1.742 192 10 final accepted value P 368.64 -494.4619072 244492.5777 38 38
168 Bergstrand 1951 299,793.1 0.4 0.642 44 11 P 1.21 -495.5619072 245581.6038 38 38
169 Froome 1951 299,792.6 0.7 0.142 36 12 P 0.25 -496.0619072 246077.4158 38 38
170 Rank, Ruth, Vander Sluis 1952 299,776.0 6 -16.458 50 13 systematic wavelength errors P 275.56 -512.6619072 262822.2311 38 38
171 Bergstrand (av date) 1953 299,792.85 0.16 0.392 48 11 P 283.9225 -495.8119072 245829.4473 38 38
172 Florman 1954 299,795.1 3.1 2.642 110 12 P 5.0625 -493.5619072 243603.3562 38 38
173 Froome 1954 299,792.75 0.3 0.292 50 12 P 5.5225 -495.9119072 245928.6197 38 38
174 Rank, Shearer, Wiggins 1954 299,789.8 3 -2.658 50 13 rerun of 148, error still there P 8.7025 -498.8619072 248863.2024 38 38
175 Scholdstrom 1955 299,792.4 0.4 -0.058 50 11 P 6.76 -496.2619072 246275.8805 38 38
176 Plyler/Blaine/Connor 1955 299,792.0 6 -0.458 58 13 P 0.16 -496.6619072 246673.05 38 38
177 Wadley 1956 299,792.9 2 0.442 40 14 P 0.81 -495.7619072 245779.8686 38 38
178 Wadley 1956 299,792.7 2 0.242 24 14 P 0.04 -495.9619072 245978.2134 38 38
179 Edge 1956 299,792.4 0.11 -0.058 50 11 P 0.09 -496.2619072 246275.8805 38 38
180 Edge 1956 299,792.2 0.13 -0.258 50 11 P 0.04 -496.4619072 246474.4253 38 38
181 Rank/Bennett/Bennett 1956 299,791.9 2 -0.558 50 13 final correct value of series P 0.09 -496.7619072 246772.3924 38 38
182 Wadley 1957 299,792.6 1.2 0.142 14 14 P 0.49 -496.0619072 246077.4158 38 38
183 Froome 1958 299,792.5 0.1 0.042 21 12 P 0.01 -496.1619072 246176.6381 38 38
184 Kolibayev (av. date) 1960 299,792.6 0.06 0.142 23 11 P 0.01 -496.0619072 246077.4158 38 38
185 Karolus 1966 299,792.44 0.2 -0.018 278 15 P 0.0256 -496.2219072 246236.1812 38 38
186 Simkin et al. 1967 299,792.56 0.11 0.102 70 16 P 0.0144 -496.1019072 246117.1023 38 38
187 Grosse 1967 299,792.5 0.05 0.042 50 11 P 0.0036 -496.1619072 246176.6381 38 38
188 Bay/Luther/White 1972 299,792.462 0.018 0.004 50 17 P 0.001444 -496.1999072 246214.3479 38 38
189 NRC/NBS 1972 299,792.460 0.006 0.002 50 17 P 4E-06 -496.2019072 246216.3327 38 38
190 NRC/NBS 1973 299,792.458 0.002 0.000 50 17 P 4E-06 -496.2039072 246218.3175 38 38
191 Evenson et al. 1973 299,792.4574 0.0011 -0.001 50 17 P 3.6E-07 -496.2045072 246218.9129 38 38
192 Blaney et al. 1974 299,792.4590 0.0008 0.001 50 17 P 2.56E-06 -496.2029072 246217.3251 38 38
193 Woods/Shotton/Rowley 1978 299,792.4588 0.0002 0.001 64 17 P 4E-08 -496.2031072 246217.5236 38 38
194 Baird/Smith/Whitford 1979 299,792.4581 0.0019 0.000 50 17 P 4.9E-07 -496.2038072 246218.2183 38 38
195
NBS (U. S.) 1983 299,792.4586 0.0003 0.001 50 17 P
2.5E-07 -496.2033072 246217.7221 38 38
Mean 300,288.662 1390.66826 496.20 558 SUM 7769731409 -5.23869E-09 5208066452 38 39 156
STDEV 5181.28 3684.91681 5181.28
VAR 26845703.36 13578611.9 26845703.36
Experiment Type (Method)
0 Unknown The Atomic Clock was first used as the standard in 1967. Statistical Calcs
1 Moons of Jupiter The velocity of light was defined to be a constant in 1983. n1 and n2
2 Aberration The value chosen for c was 299,792.458 km/sec. MSSD 1.49186488 Run Test E(r) 63.4
3 Toothed wheel WO Washington Observatory SO Strasburg Observatory
4 Rotating mirror GO Greenich Observatory Ho Honolulu Observatory Run Test Z -8.69
5 Polygonal mirror PO Pulkova Observatory BO Berlin Observatory
6 Waves on wires FO Flower Observatory SFO San Francisco Observatory t Test 1.34
7 ESU/EMU KO Kazin Observatory
8 Kerr cell cav-co 496.20391
9 Cavity resonator
Type of Data
n 195
10 Radar P Primary Data P* Primary value preferred by authors (n)exp.5 13.96424 Var(r) 19.75
11 Geodimeter S Secondary Source STDEV 5181.2839
12 Radio interferometer R Reworking of data for P R* Reworking of data preferred by authors
13 Spectral lines Pulkova Data has been corrected 2m 195
14 Tellurometer Lg Error m 97.5
15 Modulated light Uncertainty in error bars too great to show trend STDEV(r) 6.9641016
16 Microwave Outlier
17 Laser Data lies well outside nearby data points
18 Quartz Modulator Reject
Value rejected by experimenter or by subsequent analysis
Table A1.15 Velocity of Light Measurements 1675-1983
Master Data Set with Secondary, Exp. Rejects, Duplicates, 3 radar (in not in vacuo) values removed, 153 values Experimenter Method Positive Negative
# Experimenter Date c, km/sec error, Value - current No. obs. Method Comments Type Outlier Reject Reject (Xi - Xi+1)sqd (Xi-Xav) (X-Xav)sqd Run No. Run n1 Run n2
1 Cassini 1693 352,000 18000 52207.542 50 1 uncorrected P 52008.09365 2704841805 1 1
2 Auwers (Kew) 1727 301,416 1070 1623.542 800 2 8 stars, corrected R* 2558741056 1127.338093 1270891.176 1 1
3 Delambre (definitive) 1738 303,320 65 3527.542 1000 1 All obs. 1667-1809 P 3625216 3031.338093 9189010.633 1 1
4 Auwers (Wanstead) 1727-47 300,313 920 520.542 700 2 14 stars, weighted mean R* 9042049 24.33809282 592.3427621 1 1
5 Bessel (GO) 1750-54 300,093 1150 300.542 250 2 Gamma Draconis R* 48400 -195.6619072 38283.58192 2 2
6 Martin 1759 303,440 350 3647.542 50 1 quoted to 0.5 sec. P 11202409 3151.338093 9930931.775 3 3
7 Lindenau (1750-1816) 1783 300,460 160 667.542 330 2 Polaris: many sites P 8880400 171.3380928 29356.74205 3 3
8 Folk-Struve (PO) 1841 300,340 120 547.542 50 2 5 stars 1840-1842 P 14400 51.33809282 2635.599774 3 3
9 Struve (definitive) PO 1841 300,270 250 477.542 298 2 as revised in 1853 R* 4900 -18.66190718 348.2667796 4 4
10 Struve (PO) 1843 300,250 160 457.542 200 2 corrected P 400 -38.66190718 1494.743067 4 4
11 Lindhagen-Schweizer (PO) 1843 299,980 180 187.542 50 2 corrected P 72900 -308.6619072 95272.17294 4 4
12 Fizeau (Journal value) 1849.5 315,300 10000 15507.542 14 3 Base = 8633 meters P 234702400 15011.33809 225340271.3 5 5
13 Weber/Kohlrausch 1856 310,700 20000 10907.542 33 7 Q of E method P 21160000 10411.33809 108395960.9 5 5
14 Nyren-Peters (PO) 1858 300,030 190 237.542 50 2 corrected P 113848900 -258.6619072 66905.98223 6 6
15 Glasenapp (1848-1873) 1861 300,050 150 257.542 320 1 reworked, 320 eclipses P 400 -238.6619072 56959.50594 6 6
16  Newcomb (1862-1867) (W0)  1864.5 299,870 130 77.542 250 2 weighted average P 32400 -418.6619072 175277.7925 6 6
17 Gylden (PO) 1866.5 301,280 200 1487.542 50 2 corrected P 1988100 991.3380928 982751.2143 7 7
18 Nyren/Gylden (PO) 1868 299,660 200 -132.458 50 2 corrected P 2624400 -628.6619072 395215.7935 8 8
19 Maxwell 1868 284,000 20000 -15792.458 12 7 Electrometric method. P 245235600 -16288.66191 265320506.7 8 8
20 W.Thomson/King 1869 280,900 8300 -18892.458 33 7 Electrometric method. P 9610000 -19388.66191 375920210.6 8 8
21 Nyren-Wagner 1861-1879 1870 299,980 60 187.542 950 2 best by this method P 364046400 -308.6619072 95272.17294 8 8
22 Nyren (PO) 1873 299,810 200 17.542 50 2 corrected P 28900 -478.6619072 229117.2214 8 8
23 McKichan 1874 289,700 6800 -10092.458 33 7 Electrometric method. P 102212100 -10588.66191 112119761 8 8
24 Cornu-Dorsey 1874.8 299,900 200 107.542 208 3 revision in 1944 R* 104040000 -388.6619072 151058.0781 8 8
25 Harvard (1844-1909) 1876.5 299,921 13 128.542 500 1 official reduction P 441 -367.6619072 135175.278 8 8
26 Rowland 1879 298,400 3400 -1392.458 33 7 Q of E method P 2313441 -1888.661907 3567043.8 8 8
27 Hockin 1879 296,700 3000 -3092.458 33 7 Capacities method P 2890000 -3588.661907 12878494.28 8 8
28 Ayrton/Perry 1879 296,000 3000 -3792.458 33 7 Capacities method P 490000 -4288.661907 18392620.95 8 8
29 Michelson 1879.5 299,910 50 117.542 1000 4 B = 605.4 m, D = 13.32 cm. P 15288100 -378.6619072 143384.8399 8 8
30 Nyren (PO) 1879.5 299,660 200 -132.458 50 2 corrected P 62500 -628.6619072 395215.7935 8 8
31 Shida 1880 295,500 3000 -4292.458 33 7 Electrometric method. P 17305600 -4788.661907 22931282.86 8 8
32 Nyren (PO) 1880.5 299,700 130 -92.458 50 2 corrected P 17640000 -588.6619072 346522.841 8 8
33 Stoletov 1881 299,000 2000 -792.458 33 7 Capacities method P 490000 -1288.661907 1660649.511 8 8
34 Newcomb (doubtful av.) 1881.8 299,810 50 17.542 189 4 B = 2550.95 m, D = 18 cm P 656100 -478.6619072 229117.2214 8 8
35 Exner 1882 287,000 23000 -12792.458 33 7 Electrometric method. P 164096100 -13288.66191 176588535.3 8 8
36 Newcomb (full approval) 1882.7 299,860 30 67.542 66 4 B = 3721.21 m, D = 18 cm P 165379600 -428.6619072 183751.0307 8 8
37 Michelson 1882.8 299,853 60 60.542 563 4 B = 624.65 m, D = 13.8 cm. P 49 -435.6619072 189801.2974 8 8
38 Nyren (definitive) 1883 299,850 90 57.542 2000 2 Obs. of 24 stars P 9 -438.6619072 192424.2688 8 8
39 J.J.Thomson 1883 296,400 20000 -3392.458 33 7 Capacities method P 11902500 -3888.661907 15121691.43 8 8
40 Klemencic 1884 301,880 1500 2087.542 33 7 Capacities method P 30030400 1591.338093 2532356.926 9 9
41 Colley 1886 301,500 6000 1707.542 33 7 E.O. method P 144400 1211.338093 1467339.975 9 9
42 Himstedt 1887 300,570 750 777.542 33 7 Capacities method P 864900 281.3380928 79151.12247 9 9
43 Thomson et al. 1888 292,000 5250 -7792.458 33 7 Electrometric method. P 73444900 -8288.661907 68701916.21 10 10
44 W.Thomson 1889 300,500 1000 707.542 33 7 Electrometric method. P 72250000 211.3380928 44663.78948 11 11
45 Rosa 1889 300,000 800 207.542 33 7 Capacities method P 250000 -288.6619072 83325.69666 12 12
46 Doolittle (FO) 1889.5 300,460 130 667.542 1445 2 Zenith telescope P 211600 171.3380928 29356.74205 13 13
47 Marcuse (BO) 1889.5 300,100 180 307.542 50 2 corrected P 129600 -188.6619072 35593.31522 14 14
48 Kustner (BO) 1889.5 300,100 260 307.542 50 2 corrected P 0 -188.6619072 35593.31522 14 14
49 J.J.Thomson/Searle 1890 299,600 600 -192.458 23 7 Capacities method P 250000 -688.6619072 474255.2224 14 14
50 Comstock 1890.5 300,560 170 767.542 50 2 18 star pairs P 921600 271.3380928 73624.36062 15 15
51 Blondlot 1891 302,200 8500 2407.542 12 6 line base = 25 m. P 2689600 1911.338093 3653213.305 15 15
52 Pellat 1891 300,920 600 1127.542 33 7 Electrometric method. P 1638400 631.3380928 398587.7874 15 15
53 Preston (HO) 1891.5 300,750 730 957.542 50 2 0.05 arc sec error P 28900 461.3380928 212832.8359 15 15
54 Becker (SO) 1891.5 300,390 200 597.542 50 2 corrected P 129600 101.3380928 10269.40906 15 15
55 Marcuse (BO) 1891.5 299,870 130 77.542 50 2 corrected P 270400 -418.6619072 175277.7925 16 16
56 Batterman (BO) 1891.5 299,850 170 57.542 50 2 corrected P 400 -438.6619072 192424.2688 16 16
57 Chandler (BO) 1891.5 299,850 170 57.542 50 2 corrected P 0 -438.6619072 192424.2688 16 16
58 Abraham 1892 299,850 350 57.542 33 7 Capacities method P 0 -438.6619072 192424.2688 16 16
59 Becker (SO) 1892.5 300,320 180 527.542 50 2 corrected P 220900 31.33809282 982.0760616 17 17
60 Davidson (SFO) 1893 300,250 200 457.542 50 2 corrected P 4900 -38.66190718 1494.743067 18 18
61 Blondlot 1893 297,200 5500 -2592.458 8 6 line base = 1029 m. P 9302500 -3088.661907 9539832.377 18 18
62 Rhys/Davis (FO) 1894.5 300,430 190 637.542 50 2 Talcott's method P 10432900 141.3380928 19976.45648 19 19
63 Trowbridge/Duane 1895 300,395 5600 602.542 7 6 line base = 58.6 m. P 1225 106.3380928 11307.78998 19 19
64 Rhys/Jacobi/Davis (FO) 1896 300,390 150 597.542 50 2 corrected P 25 101.3380928 10269.40906 19 19
65 Rhys/Davis (FO) 1896.5 300,390 170 597.542 50 2 corrected P 0 101.3380928 10269.40906 19 19
66 Hurmuzescu 1897 300,100 300 307.542 65 7 Electrometric method P 84100 -188.6619072 35593.31522 20 20
67 Grachev/Kowalski (KO) 1897 300,150 100 357.542 16038 2 latitude studies P 2500 -138.6619072 19227.1245 20 20
68 Saunders 1897 299,795 3300 2.542 6 6 line = 1101-2223 m. P 126025 -493.6619072 243702.0786 20 20
69 Webster 1898 302,590 3000 2797.542 33 7 E.O. method P 5953600 2301.338093 5296157.017 21 21
70 Perot/Fabry 1898 299,730 300 -62.458 33 7 Electrometric method P 8179600 -558.6619072 312103.1265 22 22
71 Rhys/Davis (FO) 1898.5 300,390 170 597.542 50 2 corrected P 435600 101.3380928 10269.40906 23 23
72 Grachev (KO) 1898.5 299,600 100 -192.458 50 2 corrected P 624100 -688.6619072 474255.2224 24 24
73 Lodge/Glazebrook 1899 300,900 12000 1107.542 33 7 E.O. method P 1690000 611.3380928 373734.2637 25 25
74 Grachev (KO) 1899 300,330 100 537.542 50 2 corrected P 324900 41.33809282 1708.837918 25
75 Maclean 1899 299,195 5000 -597.458 8 6 Free space method P 1288225 -1093.661907 1196096.367 26 26
76 Perrotin 1900.4 299,900 80 107.542 770 3 Base = 11862.2 m. R* 497025 -388.6619072 151058.0781 26 26
77 Internat. Lat. Service 1900.5 299,700 60 -92.458 50 2 corrected P 40000 -588.6619072 346522.841 26 26
78 Doolittle (FO) 1901.5 299,760 130 -32.458 50 2 corrected P 3600 -528.6619072 279483.4121 26 26
79 Internat Lat. Service 1901.5 299,660 60 -132.458 50 2 corrected P 10000 -628.6619072 395215.7935 26 26
80 Perrotin 1902.4 299,860 80 67.542 1233 3 Base = 45950.7 m. R* 40000 -428.6619072 183751.0307 26 26
81 Doolittle (FO) 1903 299,590 130 -202.458 50 2 corrected P 72900 -698.6619072 488128.4605 26 26
82 Ogburn (FO) 1904.5 300,480 170 687.542 50 2 corrected P 792100 191.3380928 36610.26576 27 27
83 Doolittle (PO) 1905 300,080 130 287.542 50 2 weighted average P 160000 -208.6619072 43539.79151 28 28
84 Bonsdorf (PO) 1905 299,710 100 -82.458 50 2 corrected P 136900 -578.6619072 334849.6028 28 28
85 Rosa/Dorsey 1906 299,803 30 10.542 869 7 Best for item 7; F&E R* 8649 -485.6619072 235867.4881 28 28
86 Doolittle (FO) 1906 299,760 130 -32.458 50 2 corrected P 1849 -528.6619072 279483.4121 28 28
87 Bonsdorf et al. (PO) 1906.5 299,650 120 -142.458 50 2 corrected P 12100 -638.6619072 407889.0317 28 28
88 Doolittle (FO) 1907 299,670 130 -122.458 50 2 corrected P 400 -618.6619072 382742.5554 28 28
89 Bayswater (I.L.S.) 1907 299,780 100 -12.458 50 2 corrected P 12100 -508.6619072 258736.9358 28 28
90 Orlov (PO) 1907.5 300,090 120 297.542 50 2 corrected P 96100 -198.6619072 39466.55336 28 28
91 Internat. Lat. Service 1907.5 299,590 60 -202.458 50 2 corrected P 250000 -698.6619072 488128.4605 28 28
92 Doolittte (FO) 1908 299,850 180 57.542 50 2 corrected P 67600 -438.6619072 192424.2688 28 28
93 Semenov (PO) 1908.5 299,690 150 -102.458 50 2 corrected P 25600 -598.6619072 358396.0791 28 28
94 Internat. Lat. Service 1908.5 299,630 60 -162.458 50 2 corrected P 3600 -658.6619072 433835.508 28 28
95 Doolittle (FO) 1909 299,660 130 -132.458 50 2 corrected P 900 -628.6619072 395215.7935 28 28
96 Zemtsov (PO) 1909.5 299,650 200 -142.458 50 2 corrected P 100 -638.6619072 407889.0317 28 28
97 Semenov (PO) 1909.5 299,840 190 47.542 50 2 corrected P 36100 -448.6619072 201297.507 28 28
98 Doolittle (PO) 1910 299,940 120 147.542 50 2 corrected P 10000 -348.6619072 121565.1255 28 28
99 Numerov (PO) 1914 299,870 200 77.542 50 2 corrected P 4900 -418.6619072 175277.7925 28 28
100 Tsimmerman (PO) 1916 299,750 200 -42.458 50 2 corrected P 14400 -538.6619072 290156.6502 28 28
101 Kulikov (PO) 1922 299,780 60 -12.458 28542 2 corrected P 900 -508.6619072 258736.9358 28 28
102 Mercier 1923 299,795 30 2.542 60 6 Best for item 6. F&E p48 R* 225 -493.6619072 243702.0786 28 28
103 Spencer-Jones (GO) 1923.5 299,980 60 187.542 50 2 corrected P 34225 -308.6619072 95272.17294 28 28
104 Michelson 1924.6 299,802 30 9.542 80 5 Base = 35426.23 m. P 31684 -486.6619072 236839.8119 28 28
105 Berg (PO) 1926.5 299,890 200 97.542 50 2 corrected P 7744 -398.6619072 158931.3162 28 28
106 Michelson-Birge 1926.5 299,798 15 5.542 1600 5 Birge's correction R* 8464 -490.6619072 240749.1072 28 28
107 Spencer-Jones, indirect 1928 300,090 150 297.542 50 2 radial velocities P 85264 -198.6619072 39466.55336 28 28
108 Mittelstaedt-Birge 1928 299,786 10 -6.458 775 8 Birge's correction R* 92416 -502.6619072 252668.9929 28 28
109 Spencer-Jones, indirect 1930.5 299,630 60 -162.458 50 2 Eros observations P 24336 -658.6619072 433835.508 28 28
110 Pease/Pearson 1932.5 299,774 10 -18.458 2885 5 Base = 1610.4 m. P 20736 -514.6619072 264876.8787 28 28
111 Sollenberger (W0) 1933 300,420 60 627.542 50 2 1915-1951 (zenith) P 417316 131.3380928 17249.69463 29 29
112 Romanskaya (PO) 1935 299,790 100 -2.458 14783 2 corrected P 396900 -498.6619072 248663.6977 30 30
113 Rabe, indirect 1935.5 299,920 60 127.542 50 2 gravitational P 16900 -368.6619072 135911.6018 30 30
114 Anderson-Birge 1936.8 299,777 10 -15.458 651 8 Birge's correction R* 20449 -511.6619072 261797.9073 30 30
115 Httel-Birge 1937 299,771 10 -21.458 ? 8 Birge's correction R* 36 -517.6619072 267973.8501 30 30
116 Anderson 1940 299,776 10 -16.458 2895 8 systematic error P 25 -512.6619072 262822.2311 30 30
117 Essen/Gordon-Smith 1947 299,798 3 5.542 3 9 P 484 -490.6619072 240749.1072 30 30
118 Essen/Gordon-Smith 1947 299,792 3 -0.458 4 9 P 36 -496.6619072 246673.05 30 30
119 Bergstrand 1949 299,796 2 3.542 72 11 P 16 -492.6619072 242715.7548 30 30
120 Hansen/Bol 1950 299,794.3 1.2 1.842 2 9 P 2.89 -494.3619072 244393.6953 30 30
121 Bergstrand 1950 299,793.1 0.26 0.642 58 11 P 1.44 -495.5619072 245581.6038 30 30
122 Essen 1950 299,792.5 1 0.042 5 9 P 0.36 -496.1619072 246176.6381 30 30
123 McKinley 1950 299,780.0 70 -12.458 100 18 spread of 500 km/sec P 156.25 -508.6619072 258736.9358 30 30
124 Houstoun 1950 299,775.0 9 -17.458 20 18 spread of 180 km/sec P 25 -513.6619072 263848.5549 30 30
125 Aslakson 1951 299,794.2 1.4 1.742 192 10 final accepted value P 368.64 -494.4619072 244492.5777 30 30
126 Bergstrand 1951 299,793.1 0.4 0.642 44 11 P 1.21 -495.5619072 245581.6038 30 30
127 Froome 1951 299,792.6 0.7 0.142 36 12 P 0.25 -496.0619072 246077.4158 30 30
128 Rank, Ruth, Vander Sluis 1952 299,776.0 6 -16.458 50 13 systematic wavelength errors P 275.56 -512.6619072 262822.2311 30 30
129 Bergstrand (av date) 1953 299,792.85 0.16 0.392 48 11 P 283.9225 -495.8119072 245829.4473 30 30
130 Florman 1954 299,795.1 3.1 2.642 110 12 P 5.0625 -493.5619072 243603.3562 30 30
131 Froome 1954 299,792.75 0.3 0.292 50 12 P 5.5225 -495.9119072 245928.6197 30 30
132 Rank, Shearer, Wiggins 1954 299,789.8 3 -2.658 50 13 rerun of 148, error still there P 8.7025 -498.8619072 248863.2024 30 30
133 Scholdstrom 1955 299,792.4 0.4 -0.058 50 11 P 6.76 -496.2619072 246275.8805 30 30
134 Plyler/Blaine/Connor 1955 299,792.0 6 -0.458 58 13 P 0.16 -496.6619072 246673.05 30 30
135 Wadley 1956 299,792.9 2 0.442 40 14 P 0.81 -495.7619072 245779.8686 30 30
136 Wadley 1956 299,792.7 2 0.242 24 14 P 0.04 -495.9619072 245978.2134 30 30
137 Edge 1956 299,792.4 0.11 -0.058 50 11 P 0.09 -496.2619072 246275.8805 30 30
138 Edge 1956 299,792.2 0.13 -0.258 50 11 P 0.04 -496.4619072 246474.4253 30 30
139 Rank/Bennett/Bennett 1956 299,791.9 2 -0.558 50 13 final correct value of series P 0.09 -496.7619072 246772.3924 30 30
140 Wadley 1957 299,792.6 1.2 0.142 14 14 P 0.49 -496.0619072 246077.4158 30 30
141 Froome 1958 299,792.5 0.1 0.042 21 12 P 0.01 -496.1619072 246176.6381 30 30
142 Kolibayev (av. date) 1960 299,792.6 0.06 0.142 23 11 P 0.01 -496.0619072 246077.4158 30 30
143 Karolus 1966 299,792.44 0.2 -0.018 278 15 P 0.0256 -496.2219072 246236.1812 30 30
144 Simkin et al. 1967 299,792.56 0.11 0.102 70 16 P 0.0144 -496.1019072 246117.1023 30 30
145 Grosse 1967 299,792.5 0.05 0.042 50 11 P 0.0036 -496.1619072 246176.6381 30 30
146 Bay/Luther/White 1972 299,792.462 0.018 0.004 50 17 P 0.001444 -496.1999072 246214.3479 30 30
147 NRC/NBS 1972 299,792.460 0.006 0.002 50 17 P 4E-06 -496.2019072 246216.3327 30 30
148 NRC/NBS 1973 299,792.458 0.002 0.000 50 17 P 4E-06 -496.2039072 246218.3175 30 30
149 Evenson et al. 1973 299,792.4574 0.0011 -0.001 50 17 P 3.6E-07 -496.2045072 246218.9129 30 30
150 Blaney et al. 1974 299,792.4590 0.0008 0.001 50 17 P 2.56E-06 -496.2029072 246217.3251 30 30
151 Woods/Shotton/Rowley 1978 299,792.4588 0.0002 0.001 64 17 P 4E-08 -496.2031072 246217.5236 30 30
152 Baird/Smith/Whitford 1979 299,792.4581 0.0019 0.000 50 17 P 4.9E-07 -496.2038072 246218.2183 30 30
153 NBS (U. S.) 1983 299,792.4586 0.0003 0.001 50 17 P
2.5E-07 -496.2033072 246217.7221 30 30
Mean 299,991.906 17999.9997 SUM 4415058192 -45106.84434 4183237144 30 30 123
STDEV 5218.25 3978.91124
VAR 27230158.26 15831734.7
Experiment Type (Method)
0 Unknown The Atomic Clock was first used as the standard in 1967. Statistical Calcs
1 Moons of Jupiter The velocity of light was defined to be a constant in 1983. n1 and n2
2 Aberration The value chosen for c was 299,792.458 km/sec. MSSD 1.05541666 Run Test E(r) 49.235
3 Toothed wheel WO Washington Observatory SO Strasburg Observatory
4 Rotating mirror GO Greenich Observatory Ho Honolulu Observatory Run Test Z -7.71
5 Polygonal mirror PO Pulkova Observatory BO Berlin Observatory
6 Waves on wires FO Flower Observatory SFO San Francisco Observatory t Test 0.47
7 ESU/EMU KO Kazin Observatory
8 Kerr cell cav-co 199.44835
9 Cavity resonator Type of Data n 153
10 Radar P Primary Data P* Primary value preferred by authors (n)exp.5 12.369317 Var(r) 14.99
11 Geodimeter S Secondary Source STDEV 5218.2524
12 Radio interferometer R Reworking of data for P R* Reworking of data preferred by authors
13 Spectral lines 2m 153
14 Tellurometer Lg Error m 76.5
15 Modulated light Uncertainty in error bars too great to show trend STDEV(r) 6.1642806
16 Microwave Outlier
17 Laser Data lies well outside nearby data points
18 Quartz Modulator Reject
Value rejected by experimenter or by subsequent analysis
Table A2. Velocity of Light Measurements 1675-1983 4 standing wire points added in Corrections by BS on 6/20/92 included Calc 14
Data Set with Rejected-Methods Data Removed from A1.15 Expermtr Method Positive Negative
# Experimenter Date c, km/sec error, Value - current No. obs. Method Comments Type Outlier Reject Reject (Xi - Xi+1)sqd (Xi-Xav) (X-Xav)sqd Run No. Run n1 Run n2
1 Cassini 1693 352,000 18000 52207.542 50 1 uncorrected P 51490.07345 2651227664 1 1
2 Auwers (Kew) 1727 301,416 1070 1623.542 800 2 8 stars, corrected R* 2558741056 1127.338093 1270891.176 1 1
3 Delambre (definitive) 1738 303,320 65 3527.542 1000 1 All obs. 1667-1809 P 3625216 3031.338093 9189010.633 1 1
4 Auwers (Wanstead) 1727-47 300,313 920 520.542 700 2 14 stars, weighted mean R* 9042049 24.33809282 592.3427621 1 1
5 Bessel (GO) 1750-54 300,093 1150 300.542 250 2 Gamma Draconis R* 48400 -195.6619072 38283.58192 2 2
6 Martin 1759 303,440 350 3647.542 50 1 quoted to 0.5 sec. P 11202409 3151.338093 9930931.775 3 3
7 Lindenau (1750-1816) 1783 300,460 160 667.542 330 2 Polaris: many sites P 8880400 171.3380928 29356.74205 3 3
8 Folk-Struve (PO) 1841 300,340 120 547.542 50 2 5 stars 1840-1842 P 14400 51.33809282 2635.599774 3 3
9 Struve (definitive) PO 1841 300,270 250 477.542 298 2 as revised in 1853 R* 4900 -18.66190718 348.2667796 4 4
10 Struve (PO) 1843 300,250 160 457.542 200 2 corrected P 400 -38.66190718 1494.743067 4 4
11 Lindhagen-Schweizer (PO) 1843 299,980 180 187.542 50 2 corrected P 72900 -308.6619072 95272.17294 4 4
12 Fizeau (Journal value) 1849.5 315,300 10000 15507.542 14 3 Base = 8633 meters P 234702400 15011.33809 225340271.3 5 5
13 Nyren-Peters (PO) 1858 300,030 190 237.542 50 2 corrected P 233172900 -258.6619072 66905.98223 6 6
14 Glasenapp (1848-1873) 1861 300,050 150 257.542 320 1 reworked, 320 eclipses P 400 -238.6619072 56959.50594 6 6
15  Newcomb (1862-1867) (W0)  1864.5 299,870 130 77.542 250 2 weighted average P 32400 -418.6619072 175277.7925 6 6
16 Gylden (PO) 1866.5 301,280 200 1487.542 50 2 corrected P 1988100 991.3380928 982751.2143 7 7
17 Nyren/Gylden (PO) 1868 299,660 200 -132.458 50 2 corrected P 2624400 -628.6619072 395215.7935 8 8
18 Nyren-Wagner 1861-1879 1870 299,980 60 187.542 950 2 best by this method P 102400 -308.6619072 95272.17294 8 8
19 Nyren (PO) 1873 299,810 200 17.542 50 2 corrected P 28900 -478.6619072 229117.2214 8 8
20 Cornu-Dorsey 1874.8 299,900 200 107.542 208 3 revision in 1944 R* 8100 -388.6619072 151058.0781 8 8
21 Harvard (1844-1909) 1876.5 299,921 13 128.542 500 1 official reduction P 441 -367.6619072 135175.278 8 8
22 Michelson 1879.5 299,910 50 117.542 1000 4 B = 605.4 m, D = 13.32 cm. P 121 -378.6619072 143384.8399 8 8
23 Nyren (PO) 1879.5 299,660 200 -132.458 50 2 corrected P 62500 -628.6619072 395215.7935 8 8
24 Nyren (PO) 1880.5 299,700 130 -92.458 50 2 corrected P 1600 -588.6619072 346522.841 8 8
25 Newcomb (doubtful av.) 1881.8 299,810 50 17.542 189 4 B = 2550.95 m, D = 18 cm P 12100 -478.6619072 229117.2214 8 8
26 Newcomb (full approval) 1882.7 299,860 30 67.542 66 4 B = 3721.21 m, D = 18 cm P 2500 -428.6619072 183751.0307 8 8
27 Michelson 1882.8 299,853 60 60.542 563 4 B = 624.65 m, D = 13.8 cm. P 49 -435.6619072 189801.2974 8 8
28 Nyren (definitive) 1883 299,850 90 57.542 2000 2 Obs. of 24 stars P 9 -438.6619072 192424.2688 8 8
29 Doolittle (FO) 1889.5 300,460 130 667.542 1445 2 Zenith telescope P 372100 171.3380928 29356.74205 9 9
30 Marcuse (BO) 1889.5 300,100 180 307.542 50 2 corrected P 129600 -188.6619072 35593.31522 10 10
31 Kustner (BO) 1889.5 300,100 260 307.542 50 2 corrected P 0 -188.6619072 35593.31522 10 10
32 Comstock 1890.5 300,560 170 767.542 50 2 18 star pairs P 211600 271.3380928 73624.36062 11 11
33 Blondlot 1891 302,200 8500 2407.542 12 6 line base = 25 m. P 2689600 1911.338093 3653213.305 11 11
34 Preston (HO) 1891.5 300,750 730 957.542 50 2 0.05 arc sec error P 36100 461.3380928 212832.8359 11 11
35 Becker (SO) 1891.5 300,390 200 597.542 50 2 corrected P 129600 101.3380928 10269.40906 11 11
36 Marcuse (BO) 1891.5 299,870 130 77.542 50 2 corrected P 270400 -418.6619072 175277.7925 12 12
37 Batterman (BO) 1891.5 299,850 170 57.542 50 2 corrected P 400 -438.6619072 192424.2688 12 12
38 Chandler (BO) 1891.5 299,850 170 57.542 50 2 corrected P 0 -438.6619072 192424.2688 12 12
39 Becker (SO) 1892.5 300,320 180 527.542 50 2 corrected P 220900 31.33809282 982.0760616 13 13
40 Blondlot 1893 297,200 5500 -2592.458 8 6 line base = 1029 m. P 9734400 -3088.661907 9539832.377 14 14
41 Davidson (SFO) 1893 300,250 200 457.542 50 2 corrected P 4900 -38.66190718 1494.743067 14 14
42 Rhys/Davis (FO) 1894.5 300,430 190 637.542 50 2 Talcott's method P 32400 141.3380928 19976.45648 15 15
43 Trowbridge/Duane 1895 300,395 5600 602.542 7 6 line base = 58.6 m. P 1225 106.3380928 11307.78998 15 15
44 Rhys/Jacobi/Davis (FO) 1896 300,390 150 597.542 50 2 corrected P 1600 101.3380928 10269.40906 15 15
45 Rhys/Davis (FO) 1896.5 300,390 170 597.542 50 2 corrected P 0 101.3380928 10269.40906 15 15
46 Saunders 1897 299,795 3300 2.542 6 6 line = 1101-2223 m. P 354025 -493.6619072 243702.0786 16 16
47 Grachev/Kowalski (KO) 1897 300,150 100 357.542 16038 2 latitude studies P 57600 -138.6619072 19227.1245 16 16
48 Rhys/Davis (FO) 1898.5 300,390 170 597.542 50 2 corrected P 57600 101.3380928 10269.40906 17 17
49 Grachev (KO) 1898.5 299,600 100 -192.458 50 2 corrected P 624100 -688.6619072 474255.2224 18 18
50 Maclean 1899 299,195 5000 -597.458 8 6 Free space method P 164025 -1093.661907 1196096.367 18 18
51 Grachev (KO) 1899 300,330 100 537.542 50 2 corrected P 532900 41.33809282 1708.837918 19 19
52 Perrotin 1900.4 299,900 80 107.542 770 3 Base = 11862.2 m. R* 184900 -388.6619072 151058.0781 20 20
53 Internat. Lat. Service 1900.5 299,700 60 -92.458 50 2 corrected P 40000 -588.6619072 346522.841 20 20
54 Doolittle (FO) 1901.5 299,760 130 -32.458 50 2 corrected P 3600 -528.6619072 279483.4121 20 20
55 Internat Lat. Service 1901.5 299,660 60 -132.458 50 2 corrected P 10000 -628.6619072 395215.7935 20 20
56 Perrotin 1902.4 299,860 80 67.542 1233 3 Base = 45950.7 m. R* 40000 -428.6619072 183751.0307 20 20
57 Doolittle (FO) 1903 299,590 130 -202.458 50 2 corrected P 72900 -698.6619072 488128.4605 20 20
58 Ogburn (FO) 1904.5 300,480 170 687.542 50 2 corrected P 792100 191.3380928 36610.26576 21 21
59 Doolittle (PO) 1905 300,080 130 287.542 50 2 weighted average P 160000 -208.6619072 43539.79151 22 22
60 Bonsdorf (PO) 1905 299,710 100 -82.458 50 2 corrected P 136900 -578.6619072 334849.6028 22 22
61 Rosa/Dorsey 1906 299,803 30 10.542 869 7 Best for item 7; F&E R* 8649 -485.6619072 235867.4881 22 22
62 Doolittle (FO) 1906 299,760 130 -32.458 50 2 corrected P 1849 -528.6619072 279483.4121 22 22
63 Bonsdorf et al. (PO) 1906.5 299,650 120 -142.458 50 2 corrected P 12100 -638.6619072 407889.0317 22 22
64 Doolittle (FO) 1907 299,670 130 -122.458 50 2 corrected P 400 -618.6619072 382742.5554 22 22
65 Bayswater (I.L.S.) 1907 299,780 100 -12.458 50 2 corrected P 12100 -508.6619072 258736.9358 22 22
66 Orlov (PO) 1907.5 300,090 120 297.542 50 2 corrected P 96100 -198.6619072 39466.55336 22 22
67 Internat. Lat. Service 1907.5 299,590 60 -202.458 50 2 corrected P 250000 -698.6619072 488128.4605 22 22
68 Doolittte (FO) 1908 299,850 180 57.542 50 2 corrected P 67600 -438.6619072 192424.2688 22 22
69 Semenov (PO) 1908.5 299,690 150 -102.458 50 2 corrected P 25600 -598.6619072 358396.0791 22 22
70 Internat. Lat. Service 1908.5 299,630 60 -162.458 50 2 corrected P 3600 -658.6619072 433835.508 22 22
71 Doolittle (FO) 1909 299,660 130 -132.458 50 2 corrected P 900 -628.6619072 395215.7935 22 22
72 Zemtsov (PO) 1909.5 299,650 200 -142.458 50 2 corrected P 100 -638.6619072 407889.0317 22 22
73 Semenov (PO) 1909.5 299,840 190 47.542 50 2 corrected P 36100 -448.6619072 201297.507 22 22
74 Doolittle (PO) 1910 299,940 120 147.542 50 2 corrected P 10000 -348.6619072 121565.1255 22 22
75 Numerov (PO) 1914 299,870 200 77.542 50 2 corrected P 4900 -418.6619072 175277.7925 22 22
76 Tsimmerman (PO) 1916 299,750 200 -42.458 50 2 corrected P 14400 -538.6619072 290156.6502 22 22
77 Kulikov (PO) 1922 299,780 60 -12.458 28542 2 corrected P 900 -508.6619072 258736.9358 22 22
78 Mercier 1923 299,795 30 2.542 60 6 Best for item 6. F&E p48 R* 225 -493.6619072 243702.0786 22 22
79 Spencer-Jones (GO) 1923.5 299,980 60 187.542 50 2 corrected P 34225 -308.6619072 95272.17294 22 22
80 Michelson 1924.6 299,802 30 9.542 80 5 Base = 35426.23 m. P 31684 -486.6619072 236839.8119 22 22
81 Berg (PO) 1926.5 299,890 200 97.542 50 2 corrected P 7744 -398.6619072 158931.3162 22 22
82 Michelson-Birge 1926.5 299,798 15 5.542 1600 5 Birge's correction R* 8464 -490.6619072 240749.1072 22 22
83 Spencer-Jones, indirect 1928 300,090 150 297.542 50 2 radial velocities P 85264 -198.6619072 39466.55336 22 22
84 Mittelstaedt-Birge 1928 299,786 10 -6.458 775 8 Birge's correction R* 92416 -502.6619072 252668.9929 22 22
85 Spencer-Jones, indirect 1930.5 299,630 60 -162.458 50 2 Eros observations P 24336 -658.6619072 433835.508 22 22
86 Pease/Pearson 1932.5 299,774 10 -18.458 2885 5 Base = 1610.4 m. P 20736 -514.6619072 264876.8787 22 22
87 Sollenberger (W0) 1933 300,420 60 627.542 50 2 1915-1951 (zenith) P 417316 131.3380928 17249.69463 23 23
88 Romanskaya (PO) 1935 299,790 100 -2.458 14783 2 corrected P 396900 -498.6619072 248663.6977 24 24
89 Rabe, indirect 1935.5 299,920 60 127.542 50 2 gravitational P 16900 -368.6619072 135911.6018 24 24
90 Anderson-Birge 1936.8 299,771 10 -21.458 651 8 Birge's correction R* 22201 -517.6619072 267973.8501 24 24
91 Httel-Birge 1937 299,771 10 -21.458 ? 8 Birge's correction R* 0 -517.6619072 267973.8501 24 24
92 Anderson 1940 299,776 10 -16.458 2895 8 systematic error P 25 -512.6619072 262822.2311 24 24
93 Essen/Gordon-Smith 1947 299,798 3 5.542 3 9 P 484 -490.6619072 240749.1072 24 24
94 Essen/Gordon-Smith 1947 299,792 3 -0.458 4 9 P 36 -496.6619072 246673.05 24 24
95 Bergstrand 1949 299,796 2 3.542 72 11 P 16 -492.6619072 242715.7548 24 24
96 Hansen/Bol 1950 299,794.3 1.2 1.842 2 9 P 2.89 -494.3619072 244393.6953 24 24
97 Bergstrand 1950 299,793.1 0.26 0.642 58 11 P 1.44 -495.5619072 245581.6038 24 24
98 Essen 1950 299,792.5 1 0.042 5 9 P 0.36 -496.1619072 246176.6381 24 24
99 Aslakson 1951 299,794.2 1.4 1.742 192 10 final accepted value P 2.89 -494.4619072 244492.5777 24 24
100 Bergstrand 1951 299,793.1 0.4 0.642 44 11 P 1.21 -495.5619072 245581.6038 24 24
101 Froome 1951 299,792.6 0.7 0.142 36 12 P 0.25 -496.0619072 246077.4158 24 24
102 Rank, Ruth, Vander Sluis 1952 299,776.0 6 -16.458 50 13 systematic wavelength errors P 275.56 -512.6619072 262822.2311 24 24
103 Bergstrand (av date) 1953 299,792.85 0.16 0.392 48 11 P 283.9225 -495.8119072 245829.4473 24 24
104 Florman 1954 299,795.1 3.1 2.642 110 12 P 5.0625 -493.5619072 243603.3562 24 24
105 Froome 1954 299,792.75 0.3 0.292 50 12 P 5.5225 -495.9119072 245928.6197 24 24
106 Rank, Shearer, Wiggins 1954 299,789.8 3 -2.658 50 13 rerun of 148, error still there P 8.7025 -498.8619072 248863.2024 24 24
107 Scholdstrom 1955 299,792.4 0.4 -0.058 50 11 P 6.76 -496.2619072 246275.8805 24 24
108 Plyler/Blaine/Connor 1955 299,792.0 6 -0.458 58 13 P 0.16 -496.6619072 246673.05 24 24
109 Wadley 1956 299,792.9 2 0.442 40 14 P 0.81 -495.7619072 245779.8686 24 24
110 Wadley 1956 299,792.7 2 0.242 24 14 P 0.04 -495.9619072 245978.2134 24 24
111 Edge 1956 299,792.4 0.11 -0.058 50 11 P 0.09 -496.2619072 246275.8805 24 24
112 Edge 1956 299,792.2 0.13 -0.258 50 11 P 0.04 -496.4619072 246474.4253 24 24
113 Rank/Bennett/Bennett 1956 299,791.9 2 -0.558 50 13 final correct value of series P 0.09 -496.7619072 246772.3924 24 24
114 Wadley 1957 299,792.6 1.2 0.142 14 14 P 0.49 -496.0619072 246077.4158 24 24
115 Froome 1958 299,792.5 0.1 0.042 21 12 P 0.01 -496.1619072 246176.6381 24 24
116 Kolibayev (av. date) 1960 299,792.6 0.06 0.142 23 11 P 0.01 -496.0619072 246077.4158 24 24
117 Karolus 1966 299,792.44 0.2 -0.018 278 15 P 0.0256 -496.2219072 246236.1812 24 24
118 Simkin et al. 1967 299,792.56 0.11 0.102 70 16 P 0.0144 -496.1019072 246117.1023 24 24
119 Grosse 1967 299,792.5 0.05 0.042 50 11 P 0.0036 -496.1619072 246176.6381 24 24
120 Bay/Luther/White 1972 299,792.462 0.018 0.004 50 17 P 0.001444 -496.1999072 246214.3479 24 24
121 NRC/NBS 1972 299,792.460 0.006 0.002 50 17 P 4E-06 -496.2019072 246216.3327 24 24
122 NRC/NBS 1973 299,792.458 0.002 0.000 50 17 P 4E-06 -496.2039072 246218.3175 24 24
123 Evenson et al. 1973 299,792.4574 0.0011 -0.001 50 17 P 3.6E-07 -496.2045072 246218.9129 24 24
124 Blaney et al. 1974 299,792.4590 0.0008 0.001 50 17 P 2.56E-06 -496.2029072 246217.3251 24 24
125 Woods/Shotton/Rowley 1978 299,792.4588 0.0002 0.001 64 17 P 4E-08 -496.2031072 246217.5236 24 24
126 Baird/Smith/Whitford 1979 299,792.4581 0.0019 0.000 50 17 P 4.9E-07 -496.2038072 246218.2183 24 24
127 NBS (U. S.) 1983 299,792.4586 0.0003 0.001 50 17 P 2.5E-07 -496.2033072 246217.7221 24 24
Mean 300,509.927 SUM 3083141791 27879.34504 2936218227 24 21 101
STDEV 4840.99
VAR 23435201.42
Experiment Type (Method)
0 Unknown The Atomic Clock was first used as the standard in 1967. Statistical Calcs
1 Moons of Jupiter The velocity of light was defined to be a constant in 1983. n1 and n2
2 Aberration The value chosen for c was 299,792.458 km/sec. MSSD 1.05003837 Run Test E(r) 35.77
3 Toothed wheel WO Washington Observatory SO Strasburg Observatory
4 Rotating mirror GO Greenich Observatory Ho Honolulu Observatory Run Test Z -7.22
5 Polygonal mirror PO Pulkova Observatory BO Berlin Observatory
6 Waves on wires FO Flower Observatory SFO San Francisco Observatory t Test 1.67
7 ESU/EMU KO Kazin Observatory
8 Kerr cell cav-co 717.46855
9 Cavity resonator Type of Data n 127
10 Radar P Primary Data P* Primary value preferred by authors (n)exp.5 11.269428 Var(r) 9.704
11 Geodimeter S Secondary Source STDEV 4840.9918
12 Radio interferometer R Reworking of data for P R* Reworking of data preferred by authors
13 Spectral lines 2m 127
14 Tellurometer Lg Error m 63.5
15 Modulated light Uncertainty in error bars too great to show trend STDEV(r) 5.6123093
16 Microwave Outlier
17 Laser Data lies well outside nearby data points
18 Quartz Modulator Reject
Value rejected by experimenter or by subsequent analysis
Outliers removed from above set
Positive Negative
# Experimenter Date c, km/sec error, Value - current No. obs. Method Comments Type Outlier Reject (Xi - Xi+1)sqd (Xi-Xav) (X-Xav)sqd Run No. Run n1 Run n2
1 Cassini 1693 352,000 18000 52207.542 50 1 uncorrected P 51490.07345 2651227664 1 1
2
Fizeau (Journal value) 1849.5 315,300 10000 15507.542 14 3 Base = 8633 meters P 1346890000 15011.33809 225340271.3 7 7
3 Maxwell 1868 284,000 20000 -15792.458 12 7 Electrometric method. P #REF! -16288.66191 265320506.7 10 10
4 Sollenberger (W0) 1933 300,420 60 627.542 50 2 1915-1951 (zenith) P 269616400 131.3380928 17249.69463 25 25
5 Rank, Ruth, Vander Sluis 1952 299,776.0 6 -16.458 50 13 systematic wavelength errors P #REF! -512.6619072 262822.2311 26 26
14 Tellurometer Lg Error m -256.331
15 Modulated light Uncertainty in error bars too great to show trend STDEV(r) #NUM!
16 Microwave Outlier
17 Laser Data lies well outside nearby data points
18 Quartz Modulator Reject
Value rejected by experimenter or by subsequent analysis
Table A3.16. Velocity of Light Measurements 1675-1983 4 standing wire points added Calc 14
Derived From Data Set A2.15 with Outliers Removed Expermtr Method Positive Negative
# Experimenter Date c, km/sec error, Value - current No. obs. Method Comments Type Outlier Reject Reject (Xi - Xi+1)sqd (Xi-Xav) (X-Xav)sqd Run No. Run n1 Run n2
1 Auwers (Kew) 1727 301,416 1070 1623.542 800 2 8 stars, corrected R* 1432.211068 2051228.542 1 1
2 Auwers (Wanstead) 1737 300,313 920 520.542 700 2 14 stars, weighted mean R* 1216609 329.2110675 108379.927 1 1
3 Delambre (definitive) 1738 303,320 65 3527.542 1000 1 All obs. 1667-1809 P 9042049 3336.211068 11130304.29 1 1
4 Bessel (GO) 1752 300,093 1150 300.542 250 2 Gamma Draconis R* 10413529 109.2110675 11927.05726 1 1
5 Martin 1759 303,440 350 3647.542 50 1 quoted to 0.5 sec. P 11202409 3456.211068 11945394.94 1 1
6 Lindenau (1750-1816) 1783 300,460 160 667.542 330 2 Polaris: many sites P 8880400 476.2110675 226776.9808 1 1
7 Folk-Struve (PO) 1841 300,340 120 547.542 50 2 5 stars 1840-1842 P 14400 356.2110675 126886.3246 1 1
8 Struve (definitive) PO 1841 300,270 250 477.542 298 2 as revised in 1853 R* 4900 286.2110675 81916.77516 1 1
9 Struve (PO) 1843 300,250 160 457.542 200 2 corrected P 400 266.2110675 70868.33246 1 1
10 Lindhagen-Schweizer (PO) 1843 299,980 180 187.542 50 2 corrected P 72900 -3.7889325 14.35600949 2 2
11 Nyren-Peters (PO) 1858 300,030 190 237.542 50 2 corrected P 2500 46.2110675 2135.462759 3 3
12 Glasenapp (1848-1873) 1861 300,050 150 257.542 320 1 reworked, 320 eclipses P 400 66.2110675 4383.905459 3 3
13  Newcomb (1862-1867) (W0)  1864.5 299,870 130 77.542 250 2 weighted average P 32400 -113.7889325 12947.92116 4 4
14 Gylden (PO) 1866.5 301,280 200 1487.542 50 2 corrected P 1988100 1296.211068 1680163.132 5 5
15 Nyren/Gylden (PO) 1868 299,660 200 -132.458 50 2 corrected P 2624400 -323.7889325 104839.2728 6 6
16 Nyren-Wagner 1861-1879 1870 299,980 60 187.542 950 2 best by this method P 102400 -3.7889325 14.35600949 6 6
17 Nyren (PO) 1873 299,810 200 17.542 50 2 corrected P 28900 -173.7889325 30202.59306 6 6
18 Cornu-Dorsey 1874.8 299,900 200 107.542 208 3 revision in 1944 R* 8100 -83.7889325 7020.585209 6 6
19 Harvard (1844-1909) 1876.5 299,921 13 128.542 500 1 official reduction P 441 -62.7889325 3942.450044 6 6
20 Michelson 1879.5 299,910 50 117.542 1000 4 B = 605.4 m, D = 13.32 cm. P 121 -73.7889325 5444.806559 6 6
21 Nyren (PO) 1879.5 299,660 200 -132.458 50 2 corrected P 62500 -323.7889325 104839.2728 6 6
22 Nyren (PO) 1880.5 299,700 130 -92.458 50 2 corrected P 1600 -283.7889325 80536.15821 6 6
23 Newcomb (full approval) 1882.7 299,860 30 67.542 66 4 B = 3721.21 m, D = 18 cm P 25600 -123.7889325 15323.69981 6 6
24 Michelson 1882.8 299,853 60 60.542 563 4 B = 624.65 m, D = 13.8 cm. P 49 -130.7889325 17105.74486 6 6
25 Nyren (definitive) 1883 299,850 90 57.542 2000 2 Obs. of 24 stars P 9 -133.7889325 17899.47846 6 6
26 Doolittle (FO) 1889.5 300,460 130 667.542 1445 2 Zenith telescope P 372100 476.2110675 226776.9808 7 7
27 Marcuse (BO) 1889.5 300,100 180 307.542 50 2 corrected P 129600 116.2110675 13505.01221 7 7
28 Kustner (BO) 1889.5 300,100 260 307.542 50 2 corrected P 0 116.2110675 13505.01221 7 7
29 Comstock 1890.5 300,560 170 767.542 50 2 18 star pairs P 211600 576.2110675 332019.1943 7 7
30 Preston (HO) 1891.5 300,750 730 957.542 50 2 0.05 arc sec error P 36100 766.2110675 587079.4 7 7
31 Becker (SO) 1891.5 300,390 200 597.542 50 2 corrected P 129600 406.2110675 165007.4314 7 7
32 Marcuse (BO) 1891.5 299,870 130 77.542 50 2 corrected P 270400 -113.7889325 12947.92116 8 8
33 Batterman (BO) 1891.5 299,850 170 57.542 50 2 corrected P 400 -133.7889325 17899.47846 8 8
34 Chandler (BO) 1891.5 299,850 170 57.542 50 2 corrected P 0 -133.7889325 17899.47846 8 8
35 Becker (SO) 1892.5 300,320 180 527.542 50 2 corrected P 220900 336.2110675 113037.8819 9 9
36 Davidson (SFO) 1893 300,250 200 457.542 50 2 corrected P 4900 266.2110675 70868.33246 9 9
37 Rhys/Davis (FO) 1894.5 300,430 190 637.542 50 2 Talcott's method P 32400 446.2110675 199104.3168 9 9
38 Trowbridge/Duane 1895 300,395 5600 602.542 7 6 line base = 58.6 m. P 1225 411.2110675 169094.542 9 9
39 Rhys/Jacobi/Davis (FO) 1896 300,390 150 597.542 50 2 corrected P 25 406.2110675 165007.4314 9 9
40 Rhys/Davis (FO) 1896.5 300,390 170 597.542 50 2 corrected P 0 406.2110675 165007.4314 9 9
41 Saunders 1897 299,795 3300 2.542 6 6 line = 1101-2223 m. P 354025 -188.7889325 35641.26103 10 10
42 Grachev/Kowalski (KO) 1897 300,150 100 357.542 16038 2 latitude studies P 126025 166.2110675 27626.11896 11 11
43 Rhys/Davis (FO) 1898.5 300,390 170 597.542 50 2 corrected P 57600 406.2110675 165007.4314 11 11
44 Grachev (KO) 1898.5 299,600 100 -192.458 50 2 corrected P 624100 -383.7889325 147293.9447 12 12
45 Maclean 1899 299,195 5000 -597.458 8 6 Free space method P 164025 -788.7889325 622187.98 12 12
46 Grachev (KO) 1899 300,330 100 537.542 50 2 corrected P 1288225 346.2110675 119862.1033 13 13
47 Perrotin 1900.4 299,900 80 107.542 770 3 Base = 11862.2 m. R* 184900 -83.7889325 7020.585209 14 14
48 Internat. Lat. Service 1900.5 299,700 60 -92.458 50 2 corrected P 40000 -283.7889325 80536.15821 14 14
49 Doolittle (FO) 1901.5 299,760 130 -32.458 50 2 corrected P 3600 -223.7889325 50081.48631 14 14
50 Internat Lat. Service 1901.5 299,660 60 -132.458 50 2 corrected P 10000 -323.7889325 104839.2728 14 14
51 Perrotin 1902.4 299,860 80 67.542 1233 3 Base = 45950.7 m. R* 40000 -123.7889325 15323.69981 14 14
52 Doolittle (FO) 1903 299,590 130 -202.458 50 2 corrected P 72900 -393.7889325 155069.7234 14 14
53 Ogburn (FO) 1904.5 300,480 170 687.542 50 2 corrected P 792100 496.2110675 246225.4235 15 15
54 Doolittle (PO) 1905 300,080 130 287.542 50 2 weighted average P 160000 96.2110675 9256.569509 15 15
55 Bonsdorf (PO) 1905 299,710 100 -82.458 50 2 corrected P 136900 -273.7889325 74960.37956 16 16
56 Rosa/Dorsey 1906 299,803 30 10.542 869 7 Best for item 7; F&E R* 8649 -180.7889325 32684.63811 16 16
57 Doolittle (FO) 1906 299,760 130 -32.458 50 2 corrected P 1849 -223.7889325 50081.48631 16 16
58 Bonsdorf et al. (PO) 1906.5 299,650 120 -142.458 50 2 corrected P 12100 -333.7889325 111415.0515 16 16
59 Doolittle (FO) 1907 299,670 130 -122.458 50 2 corrected P 400 -313.7889325 98463.49416 16 16
60 Bayswater (I.L.S.) 1907 299,780 100 -12.458 50 2 corrected P 12100 -203.7889325 41529.92901 16 16
61 Orlov (PO) 1907.5 300,090 120 297.542 50 2 corrected P 96100 106.2110675 11280.79086 17 17
62 Internat. Lat. Service 1907.5 299,590 60 -202.458 50 2 corrected P 250000 -393.7889325 155069.7234 18 18
63 Doolittte (FO) 1908 299,850 180 57.542 50 2 corrected P 67600 -133.7889325 17899.47846 18 18
64 Semenov (PO) 1908.5 299,690 150 -102.458 50 2 corrected P 25600 -293.7889325 86311.93686 18 18
65 Internat. Lat. Service 1908.5 299,630 60 -162.458 50 2 corrected P 3600 -353.7889325 125166.6088 18 18
66 Doolittle (FO) 1909 299,660 130 -132.458 50 2 corrected P 900 -323.7889325 104839.2728 18 18
67 Zemtsov (PO) 1909.5 299,650 200 -142.458 50 2 corrected P 100 -333.7889325 111415.0515 18 18
68 Semenov (PO) 1909.5 299,840 190 47.542 50 2 corrected P 36100 -143.7889325 20675.25711 18 18
69 Doolittle (PO) 1910 299,940 120 147.542 50 2 corrected P 10000 -43.7889325 1917.470609 18 18
70 Numerov (PO) 1914 299,870 200 77.542 50 2 corrected P 4900 -113.7889325 12947.92116 18 18
71 Tsimmerman (PO) 1916 299,750 200 -42.458 50 2 corrected P 14400 -233.7889325 54657.26496 18 18
72 Kulikov (PO) 1922 299,780 60 -12.458 28542 2 corrected P 900 -203.7889325 41529.92901 18 18
73 Mercier 1923 299,795 30 2.542 60 6 Best for item 6. F&E p48 R* 225 -188.7889325 35641.26103 18 18
74 Spencer-Jones (GO) 1923.5 299,980 60 187.542 50 2 corrected P 34225 -3.7889325 14.35600949 18 18
75 Michelson 1924.6 299,802 30 9.542 80 5 Base = 35426.23 m. P 31684 -181.7889325 33047.21598 18 18
76 Berg (PO) 1926.5 299,890 200 97.542 50 2 corrected P 7744 -93.7889325 8796.363859 18 18
77 Michelson-Birge 1926.5 299,798 15 5.542 1600 5 Birge's correction R* 8464 -185.7889325 34517.52744 18 18
78 Spencer-Jones, indirect 1928 300,090 150 297.542 50 2 radial velocities P 85264 106.2110675 11280.79086 19 19
79 Mittelstaedt-Birge 1928 299,786 10 -6.458 775 8 Birge's correction R* 92416 -197.7889325 39120.46182 20 20
80 Spencer-Jones, indirect 1930.5 299,630 60 -162.458 50 2 Eros observations P 24336 -353.7889325 125166.6088 20 20
81 Pease/Pearson 1932.5 299,774 10 -18.458 2885 5 Base = 1610.4 m. P 20736 -209.7889325 44011.3962 20 20
82 Romanskaya (PO) 1935 299,790 100 -2.458 14783 2 corrected P 256 -193.7889325 37554.15036 20 20
83 Rabe, indirect 1935.5 299,920 60 127.542 50 2 gravitational P 16900 -63.7889325 4069.027909 20 20
84 Anderson-Birge 1936.8 299,771 10 -21.458 651 8 Birge's correction R* 22201 -212.7889325 45279.12979 20 20
85 Httel-Birge 1937 299,771 10 -21.458 ? 8 Birge's correction R* 0 -212.7889325 45279.12979 20 20
86 Anderson 1940 299,776 10 -16.458 2895 8 systematic error P 25 -207.7889325 43176.24047 20 20
87 Essen/Gordon-Smith 1947 299,798 3 5.542 3 9 P 484 -185.7889325 34517.52744 20 20
88 Essen/Gordon-Smith 1947 299,792 3 -0.458 4 9 P 36 -191.7889325 36782.99463 20 20
89 Bergstrand 1949 299,796 2 3.542 72 11 P 16 -187.7889325 35264.68317 20 20
90 Hansen/Bol 1950 299,794.3 1.2 1.842 2 9 P 2.89 -189.4889325 35906.05554 20 20
91 Bergstrand 1950 299,793.1 0.26 0.642 58 11 P 1.44 -190.6889325 36362.26898 20 20
92 Essen 1950 299,792.5 1 0.042 5 9 P 0.36 -191.2889325 36591.4557 20 20
93 Aslakson 1951 299,794.2 1.4 1.742 192 10 final accepted value P 2.89 -189.5889325 35943.96333 20 20
94 Bergstrand 1951 299,793.1 0.4 0.642 44 11 P 1.21 -190.6889325 36362.26898 20 20
95 Froome 1951 299,792.6 0.7 0.142 36 12 P 0.25 -191.1889325 36553.20791 20 20
96 Bergstrand (av date) 1953 299,792.85 0.16 0.392 48 11 P 0.0625 -190.9389325 36457.67594 20 20
97 Florman 1954 299,795.1 3.1 2.642 110 12 P 5.0625 -188.6889325 35603.51325 20 20
98 Froome 1954 299,792.75 0.3 0.292 50 12 P 5.5225 -191.0389325 36495.87373 20 20
99 Rank, Shearer, Wiggins 1954 299,789.8 3 -2.658 50 13 rerun of 148, error still there P 8.7025 -193.9889325 37631.70593 20 20
100 Scholdstrom 1955 299,792.4 0.4 -0.058 50 11 P 6.76 -191.3889325 36629.72348 20 20
101 Plyler/Blaine/Connor 1955 299,792.0 6 -0.458 58 13 P 0.16 -191.7889325 36782.99463 20 20
102 Wadley 1956 299,792.9 2 0.442 40 14 P 0.81 -190.8889325 36438.58455 20 20
103 Wadley 1956 299,792.7 2 0.242 24 14 P 0.04 -191.0889325 36514.98012 20 20
104 Edge 1956 299,792.4 0.11 -0.058 50 11 P 0.09 -191.3889325 36629.72348 20 20
105 Edge 1956 299,792.2 0.13 -0.258 50 11 P 0.04 -191.5889325 36706.31906 20 20
106 Rank/Bennett/Bennett 1956 299,791.9 2 -0.558 50 13 final correct value of series P 0.09 -191.8889325 36821.36242 20 20
107 Wadley 1957 299,792.6 1.2 0.142 14 14 P 0.49 -191.1889325 36553.20791 20 20
108 Froome 1958 299,792.5 0.1 0.042 21 12 P 0.01 -191.2889325 36591.4557 20 20
109 Kolibayev (av. date) 1960 299,792.6 0.06 0.142 23 11 P 0.01 -191.1889325 36553.20791 20 20
110 Karolus 1966 299,792.44 0.2 -0.018 278 15 P 0.0256 -191.3489325 36614.41397 20 20
111 Simkin et al. 1967 299,792.56 0.11 0.102 70 16 P 0.0144 -191.2289325 36568.50463 20 20
112 Grosse 1967 299,792.5 0.05 0.042 50 11 P 0.0036 -191.2889325 36591.4557 20 20
113 Bay/Luther/White 1972 299,792.462 0.018 0.004 50 17 P 0.001444 -191.3269325 36605.9951 20 20
114 NRC/NBS 1972 299,792.460 0.006 0.002 50 17 P 4E-06 -191.3289325 36606.76041 20 20
115 NRC/NBS 1973 299,792.458 0.002 0.000 50 17 P 4E-06 -191.3309325 36607.52573 20 20
116 Evenson et al. 1973 299,792.4574 0.0011 -0.001 50 17 P 3.6E-07 -191.3315325 36607.75533 20 20
117 Blaney et al. 1974 299,792.4590 0.0008 0.001 50 17 P 2.56E-06 -191.3299325 36607.14307 20 20
118 Woods/Shotton/Rowley 1978 299,792.4588 0.0002 0.001 64 17 P 4E-08 -191.3301325 36607.2196 20 20
119 Baird/Smith/Whitford 1979 299,792.4581 0.0019 0.000 50 17 P 4.9E-07 -191.3308325 36607.48747 20 20
120 NBS (U. S.) 1983 299,792.4586 0.0003 0.001 50 17 P 2.5E-07 -191.3303325 36607.29613 20 20
Mean 299,983.789 SUM 52079112.94 0 34794353.62 20 31 89
STDEV 540.73
VAR 292389.5262
Experiment Type (Method)
0 Unknown The Atomic Clock was first used as the standard in 1967. Statistical Calcs
1 Moons of Jupiter The velocity of light was defined to be a constant in 1983. n1 and n2
2 Aberration The value chosen for c was 299,792.458 km/sec. MSSD 1.49676909 Run Test E(r) 46.983
3 Toothed wheel WO Washington Observatory SO Strasburg Observatory
4 Rotating mirror GO Greenich Observatory Ho Honolulu Observatory Run Test Z -7.52
5 Polygonal mirror PO Pulkova Observatory BO Berlin Observatory
6 Waves on wires FO Flower Observatory SFO San Francisco Observatory t Test 3.88
7 ESU/EMU KO Kazin Observatory
8 Kerr cell cav-co 191.33093
9 Cavity resonator Type of Data n 120
10 Radar P Primary Data P* Primary value preferred by authors (n)exp.5 10.954451 Var(r) 17.38
11 Geodimeter S Secondary Source STDEV 540.73055
12 Radio interferometer R Reworking of data for P R* Reworking of data preferred by authors
13 Spectral lines 2m 120
14 Tellurometer Lg Error m 60
15 Modulated light Uncertainty in error bars too great to show trend STDEV(r) 5.4541635
16 Microwave Outlier
17 Laser Data lies well outside nearby data points
18 Quartz Modulator Reject
Value rejected by experimenter or by subsequent analysis
Table B3.16. Velocity of Light Measurements 1675-1983 Calc 14
Sorted by Increasing c Expermtr Method Positive Negative
# Experimenter Date c, km/sec error, Value - current No. obs. Method Comments Type Outlier Reject Reject (Xi - Xi+1)sqd (Xi-Xav) (X-Xav)sqd Run No. Run n1 Run n2
1 Maclean 1899 299,195 5000 -597.458 8 6 Free space method P -788.7889325 622187.98
2 Doolittle (FO) 1903 299,590 130 -202.458 50 2 corrected P 156025 -393.7889325 155069.7234
3 Internat. Lat. Service 1907.5 299,590 60 -202.458 50 2 corrected P 0 -393.7889325 155069.7234
4 Grachev (KO) 1898.5 299,600 100 -192.458 50 2 corrected P 100 -383.7889325 147293.9447
5 Internat. Lat. Service 1908.5 299,630 60 -162.458 50 2 corrected P 900 -353.7889325 125166.6088
6 Spencer-Jones, indirect 1930.5 299,630 60 -162.458 50 2 Eros observations P 0 -353.7889325 125166.6088
7 Bonsdorf et al. (PO) 1906.5 299,650 120 -142.458 50 2 corrected P 400 -333.7889325 111415.0515
8 Zemtsov (PO) 1909.5 299,650 200 -142.458 50 2 corrected P 0 -333.7889325 111415.0515
9 Nyren/Gylden (PO) 1868 299,660 200 -132.458 50 2 corrected P 100 -323.7889325 104839.2728
10 Nyren (PO) 1879.5 299,660 200 -132.458 50 2 corrected P 0 -323.7889325 104839.2728
11 Internat Lat. Service 1901.5 299,660 60 -132.458 50 2 corrected P 0 -323.7889325 104839.2728
12 Doolittle (FO) 1909 299,660 130 -132.458 50 2 corrected P 0 -323.7889325 104839.2728
13 Doolittle (FO) 1907 299,670 130 -122.458 50 2 corrected P 100 -313.7889325 98463.49416
14 Semenov (PO) 1908.5 299,690 150 -102.458 50 2 corrected P 400 -293.7889325 86311.93686
15 Nyren (PO) 1880.5 299,700 130 -92.458 50 2 corrected P 100 -283.7889325 80536.15821
16 Internat. Lat. Service 1900.5 299,700 60 -92.458 50 2 corrected P 0 -283.7889325 80536.15821
17 Bonsdorf (PO) 1905 299,710 100 -82.458 50 2 corrected P 100 -273.7889325 74960.37956
18 Tsimmerman (PO) 1916 299,750 200 -42.458 50 2 corrected P 1600 -233.7889325 54657.26496
19 Doolittle (FO) 1901.5 299,760 130 -32.458 50 2 corrected P 100 -223.7889325 50081.48631
20 Doolittle (FO) 1906 299,760 130 -32.458 50 2 corrected P 0 -223.7889325 50081.48631
21 Anderson-Birge 1936.8 299,771 10 -21.458 651 8 Birge's correction R* 121 -212.7889325 45279.12979
22 Httel-Birge 1937 299,771 10 -21.458 ? 8 Birge's correction R* 0 -212.7889325 45279.12979
23 Pease/Pearson 1932.5 299,774 10 -18.458 2885 5 Base = 1610.4 m. P 9 -209.7889325 44011.3962
24 Anderson 1940 299,776 10 -16.458 2895 8 systematic error P 4 -207.7889325 43176.24047
25 Bayswater (I.L.S.) 1907 299,780 100 -12.458 50 2 corrected P 16 -203.7889325 41529.92901
26 Kulikov (PO) 1922 299,780 60 -12.458 28542 2 corrected P 0 -203.7889325 41529.92901
27 Mittelstaedt-Birge 1928 299,786 10 -6.458 775 8 Birge's correction R* 36 -197.7889325 39120.46182
28 Rank, Shearer, Wiggins 1954 299,789.8 3 -2.658 50 13 rerun of 148, error still there P 14.44 -193.9889325 37631.70593
29 Romanskaya (PO) 1935 299,790 100 -2.458 14783 2 corrected P 0.04 -193.7889325 37554.15036
30 Rank/Bennett/Bennett 1956 299,791.9 2 -0.558 50 13 final correct value of series P 3.61 -191.8889325 36821.36242
31 Essen/Gordon-Smith 1947 299,792 3 -0.458 4 9 P 0.01 -191.7889325 36782.99463
32 Plyler/Blaine/Connor 1955 299,792.0 6 -0.458 58 13 P 0 -191.7889325 36782.99463
33 Edge 1956 299,792.2 0.13 -0.258 50 11 P 0.04 -191.5889325 36706.31906
34 Scholdstrom 1955 299,792.4 0.4 -0.058 50 11 P 0.04 -191.3889325 36629.72348
35 Edge 1956 299,792.4 0.11 -0.058 50 11 P 0 -191.3889325 36629.72348
36 Karolus 1966 299,792.44 0.2 -0.018 278 15 P 0.0016 -191.3489325 36614.41397
37 Evenson et al. 1973 299,792.4574 0.0011 -0.001 50 17 P 0.00030276 -191.3315325 36607.75533
38 NRC/NBS 1973 299,792.458 0.002 0.000 50 17 P 3.6E-07 -191.3309325 36607.52573
39 Baird/Smith/Whitford 1979 299,792.4581 0.0019 0.000 50 17 P 1E-08 -191.3308325 36607.48747
40 NBS (U. S.) 1983 299,792.4586 0.0003 0.001 50 17 P 2.5E-07 -191.3303325 36607.29613
41 Woods/Shotton/Rowley 1978 299,792.4588 0.0002 0.001 64 17 P 4E-08 -191.3301325 36607.2196
42 Blaney et al. 1974 299,792.4590 0.0008 0.001 50 17 P 4E-08 -191.3299325 36607.14307
43 NRC/NBS 1972 299,792.460 0.006 0.002 50 17 P 1E-06 -191.3289325 36606.76041
44 Bay/Luther/White 1972 299,792.462 0.018 0.004 50 17 P 4E-06 -191.3269325 36605.9951
45 Essen 1950 299,792.5 1 0.042 5 9 P 0.001444 -191.2889325 36591.4557
46 Froome 1958 299,792.5 0.1 0.042 21 12 P 0 -191.2889325 36591.4557
47 Grosse 1967 299,792.5 0.05 0.042 50 11 P 0 -191.2889325 36591.4557
48 Simkin et al. 1967 299,792.56 0.11 0.102 70 16 P 0.0036 -191.2289325 36568.50463
49 Froome 1951 299,792.6 0.7 0.142 36 12 P 0.0016 -191.1889325 36553.20791
50 Wadley 1957 299,792.6 1.2 0.142 14 14 P 0 -191.1889325 36553.20791
51 Kolibayev (av. date) 1960 299,792.6 0.06 0.142 23 11 P 0 -191.1889325 36553.20791
52 Wadley 1956 299,792.7 2 0.242 24 14 P 0.01 -191.0889325 36514.98012
53 Froome 1954 299,792.75 0.3 0.292 50 12 P 0.0025 -191.0389325 36495.87373
54 Bergstrand (av date) 1953 299,792.85 0.16 0.392 48 11 P 0.01 -190.9389325 36457.67594
55 Wadley 1956 299,792.9 2 0.442 40 14 P 0.0025 -190.8889325 36438.58455
56 Bergstrand 1950 299,793.1 0.26 0.642 58 11 P 0.04 -190.6889325 36362.26898
57 Bergstrand 1951 299,793.1 0.4 0.642 44 11 P 0 -190.6889325 36362.26898
58 Aslakson 1951 299,794.2 1.4 1.742 192 10 final accepted value P 1.21 -189.5889325 35943.96333
59 Hansen/Bol 1950 299,794.3 1.2 1.842 2 9 P 0.01 -189.4889325 35906.05554
60 Saunders 1897 299,795 3300 2.542 6 6 line = 1101-2223 m. P 0.49 -188.7889325 35641.26103
61 Mercier 1923 299,795 30 2.542 60 6 Best for item 6. F&E p48 R* 0 -188.7889325 35641.26103
62 Florman 1954 299,795.1 3.1 2.642 110 12 P 0.01 -188.6889325 35603.51325
63 Bergstrand 1949 299,796 2 3.542 72 11 P 0.81 -187.7889325 35264.68317
64 Michelson-Birge 1926.5 299,798 15 5.542 1600 5 Birge's correction R* 4 -185.7889325 34517.52744
65 Essen/Gordon-Smith 1947 299,798 3 5.542 3 9 P 0 -185.7889325 34517.52744
66 Michelson 1924.6 299,802 30 9.542 80 5 Base = 35426.23 m. P 16 -181.7889325 33047.21598
67 Rosa/Dorsey 1906 299,803 30 10.542 869 7 Best for item 7; F&E R* 1 -180.7889325 32684.63811
68 Nyren (PO) 1873 299,810 200 17.542 50 2 corrected P 49 -173.7889325 30202.59306
69 Semenov (PO) 1909.5 299,840 190 47.542 50 2 corrected P 900 -143.7889325 20675.25711
70 Nyren (definitive) 1883 299,850 90 57.542 2000 2 Obs. of 24 stars P 100 -133.7889325 17899.47846
71 Batterman (BO) 1891.5 299,850 170 57.542 50 2 corrected P 0 -133.7889325 17899.47846
72 Chandler (BO) 1891.5 299,850 170 57.542 50 2 corrected P 0 -133.7889325 17899.47846
73 Doolittte (FO) 1908 299,850 180 57.542 50 2 corrected P 0 -133.7889325 17899.47846
74 Michelson 1882.8 299,853 60 60.542 563 4 B = 624.65 m, D = 13.8 cm. P 9 -130.7889325 17105.74486
75 Newcomb (full approval) 1882.7 299,860 30 67.542 66 4 B = 3721.21 m, D = 18 cm P 49 -123.7889325 15323.69981
76 Perrotin 1902.4 299,860 80 67.542 1233 3 Base = 45950.7 m. R* 0 -123.7889325 15323.69981
77  Newcomb (1862-1867) (W0)  1864.5 299,870 130 77.542 250 2 weighted average P 100 -113.7889325 12947.92116
78 Marcuse (BO) 1891.5 299,870 130 77.542 50 2 corrected P 0 -113.7889325 12947.92116
79 Numerov (PO) 1914 299,870 200 77.542 50 2 corrected P 0 -113.7889325 12947.92116
80 Berg (PO) 1926.5 299,890 200 97.542 50 2 corrected P 400 -93.7889325 8796.363859
81 Cornu-Dorsey 1874.8 299,900 200 107.542 208 3 revision in 1944 R* 100 -83.7889325 7020.585209
82 Perrotin 1900.4 299,900 80 107.542 770 3 Base = 11862.2 m. R* 0 -83.7889325 7020.585209
83 Michelson 1879.5 299,910 50 117.542 1000 4 B = 605.4 m, D = 13.32 cm. P 100 -73.7889325 5444.806559
84 Rabe, indirect 1935.5 299,920 60 127.542 50 2 gravitational P 100 -63.7889325 4069.027909
85 Harvard (1844-1909) 1876.5 299,921 13 128.542 500 1 official reduction P 1 -62.7889325 3942.450044
86 Doolittle (PO) 1910 299,940 120 147.542 50 2 corrected P 361 -43.7889325 1917.470609
87 Lindhagen-Schweizer (PO) 1843 299,980 180 187.542 50 2 corrected P 1600 -3.7889325 14.35600949
88 Nyren-Wagner 1861-1879 1870 299,980 60 187.542 950 2 best by this method P 0 -3.7889325 14.35600949
89 Spencer-Jones (GO) 1923.5 299,980 60 187.542 50 2 corrected P 0 -3.7889325 14.35600949
90 Nyren-Peters (PO) 1858 300,030 190 237.542 50 2 corrected P 2500 46.2110675 2135.462759
91 Glasenapp (1848-1873) 1861 300,050 150 257.542 320 1 reworked, 320 eclipses P 400 66.2110675 4383.905459
92 Doolittle (PO) 1905 300,080 130 287.542 50 2 weighted average P 900 96.2110675 9256.569509
93 Orlov (PO) 1907.5 300,090 120 297.542 50 2 corrected P 100 106.2110675 11280.79086
94 Spencer-Jones, indirect 1928 300,090 150 297.542 50 2 radial velocities P 0 106.2110675 11280.79086
95 Bessel (GO) 1752 300,093 1150 300.542 250 2 Gamma Draconis R* 9 109.2110675 11927.05726
96 Marcuse (BO) 1889.5 300,100 180 307.542 50 2 corrected P 49 116.2110675 13505.01221
97 Kustner (BO) 1889.5 300,100 260 307.542 50 2 corrected P 0 116.2110675 13505.01221
98 Grachev/Kowalski (KO) 1897 300,150 100 357.542 16038 2 latitude studies P 2500 166.2110675 27626.11896
99 Struve (PO) 1843 300,250 160 457.542 200 2 corrected P 10000 266.2110675 70868.33246
100 Davidson (SFO) 1893 300,250 200 457.542 50 2 corrected P 0 266.2110675 70868.33246
101 Struve (definitive) PO 1841 300,270 250 477.542 298 2 as revised in 1853 R* 400 286.2110675 81916.77516
102 Auwers (Wanstead) 1737 300,313 920 520.542 700 2 14 stars, weighted mean R* 1849 329.2110675 108379.927
103 Becker (SO) 1892.5 300,320 180 527.542 50 2 corrected P 49 336.2110675 113037.8819
104 Grachev (KO) 1899 300,330 100 537.542 50 2 corrected P 100 346.2110675 119862.1033
105 Folk-Struve (PO) 1841 300,340 120 547.542 50 2 5 stars 1840-1842 P 100 356.2110675 126886.3246
106 Becker (SO) 1891.5 300,390 200 597.542 50 2 corrected P 2500 406.2110675 165007.4314
107 Rhys/Jacobi/Davis (FO) 1896 300,390 150 597.542 50 2 corrected P 0 406.2110675 165007.4314
108 Rhys/Davis (FO) 1896.5 300,390 170 597.542 50 2 corrected P 0 406.2110675 165007.4314
109 Rhys/Davis (FO) 1898.5 300,390 170 597.542 50 2 corrected P 0 406.2110675 165007.4314
110 Trowbridge/Duane 1895 300,395 5600 602.542 7 6 line base = 58.6 m. P 25 411.2110675 169094.542
111 Rhys/Davis (FO) 1894.5 300,430 190 637.542 50 2 Talcott's method P 1225 446.2110675 199104.3168
112 Lindenau (1750-1816) 1783 300,460 160 667.542 330 2 Polaris: many sites P 900 476.2110675 226776.9808
113 Doolittle (FO) 1889.5 300,460 130 667.542 1445 2 Zenith telescope P 0 476.2110675 226776.9808
114 Ogburn (FO) 1904.5 300,480 170 687.542 50 2 corrected P 400 496.2110675 246225.4235
115 Comstock 1890.5 300,560 170 767.542 50 2 18 star pairs P 6400 576.2110675 332019.1943
116 Preston (HO) 1891.5 300,750 730 957.542 50 2 0.05 arc sec error P 36100 766.2110675 587079.4
117 Gylden (PO) 1866.5 301,280 200 1487.542 50 2 corrected P 280900 1296.211068 1680163.132
1 Auwers (Kew) 1727 301,416 1070 1623.542 800 2 8 stars, corrected R* 1432.211068 2051228.542
2 Delambre (definitive) 1738 303,320 65 3527.542 1000 1 All obs. 1667-1809 P 3625216 3336.211068 11130304.29
3 Martin 1759 303,440 350 3647.542 50 1 quoted to 0.5 sec. P 14400 3456.211068 11945394.94
Mean 299,983.789 SUM 4151043.784 0 34794353.62
STDEV 540.73
VAR 292389.5262
Experiment Type (Method)
0 Unknown The Atomic Clock was first used as the standard in 1967. Statistical Calcs
1 Moons of Jupiter The velocity of light was defined to be a constant in 1983. n1 and n2
2 Aberration The value chosen for c was 299,792.458 km/sec. MSSD 0.11930222 Run Test E(r) ######
3 Toothed wheel WO Washington Observatory SO Strasburg Observatory
4 Rotating mirror GO Greenich Observatory Ho Honolulu Observatory Run Test Z -11.18
5 Polygonal mirror PO Pulkova Observatory BO Berlin Observatory
6 Waves on wires FO Flower Observatory SFO San Francisco Observatory t Test 3.88
7 ESU/EMU KO Kazin Observatory
8 Kerr cell cav-co 191.33093
9 Cavity resonator Type of Data n 120
10 Radar P Primary Data P* Primary value preferred by authors (n)exp.5 10.954451 Var(r) ####
11 Geodimeter S Secondary Source STDEV 540.73055
12 Radio interferometer R Reworking of data for P R* Reworking of data preferred by authors
13 Spectral lines 2m 120
14 Tellurometer Lg Error m 60
15 Modulated light Uncertainty in error bars too great to show trend STDEV(r) 5.4541635
16 Microwave Outlier
17 Laser Data lies well outside nearby data points
18 Quartz Modulator Reject
Value rejected by experimenter or by subsequent analysis
Table O. Outliers removed from Master Set Calc 16 3rd Revision
Experimenter Method Positive Negative
# Experimenter Date c, km/sec error, Value - current No. obs. Method Comments Type Outlier Reject Reject (Xi - Xi+1)sqd (Xi-Xav) (X-Xav)sqd Run No. Run n1 Run n2
1 Roemer-Goldstein (2) 1675 292,000 5400 -7792.458 50 1 Goldstein corrects 1973 data R -17,740 314693408.2
2 Roemer-Mammel 1675 317,700 2700 17907.542 50 1 1983 calculation R 660490000 7,960 63367968.16
3 Roemer-Setterfield 1675 307,500 5400 7707.542 50 1 Setterfield's reworking R 104040000 -2,240 5015808.16
4 Cassini 1693 352,000 18000 52207.542 50 1 uncorrected P 1980250000 42,260 1785941408
5 Fizeau (Journal value) 1849.5 315,300 10000 15507.542 14 3 Base = 8633 meters P 1346890000 5,560 30918048.16
6 Fizeau. (textbook value) 1849.5 313,300 10000 13507.542 14 3 'rough approximation' R 4000000 3,560 12676448.16
7 Blondlot 1891 302,200 8500 2407.542 12 6 line base = 25 m. P 123210000 -7,540 56845568.16
8 Blondlot 1893 297,200 5500 -2592.458 8 6 line base = 1029 m. P 25000000 -12,540 157241568.2
9 Sollenberger (W0) 1933 300,420 60 627.542 50 2 1915-1951 (zenith) P 10368400 -9,320 86854944.16
10 Rank, Ruth, Vander Sluis 1952 299,776.0 6 -16.458 50 13 systematic wavelength errors P 414736 -9,964 99273324.96
Mean 309,739.600 6556.6 9947.14 35 SUM 4254663136 2.32831E-10 2612828494
STDEV 17038.61 5397.77321 17038.61
VAR 290314277.2 29135955.6 290314277.2
Experiment Type (Method)
0 Unknown The Atomic Clock was first used as the standard in 1967. Statistical Calcs
1 Moons of Jupiter The velocity of light was defined to be a constant in 1983. n1 and n2
2 Aberration The value chosen for c was 299,792.458 km/sec. MSSD 1.62837444 Run Test E(r)
3 Toothed wheel WO Washington Observatory SO Strasburg Observatory
4 Rotating mirror GO Greenich Observatory Ho Honolulu Observatory Run Test Z
5 Polygonal mirror PO Pulkova Observatory BO Berlin Observatory
6 Waves on wires FO Flower Observatory SFO San Francisco Observatory t Test 1.85
7 ESU/EMU KO Kazin Observatory
8 Kerr cell cav-co 9947.142
9 Cavity resonator Type of Data n 10
10 Radar P Primary Data P* Primary value preferred by authors (n)exp.5 3.1622777
11 Geodimeter S Secondary Source STDEV 17038.611
12 Radio interferometer R Reworking of data for P R* Reworking of data preferred by authors
13 Spectral lines Pulkova Data has been corrected 2m 10
14 Tellurometer Lg Error m 5
15 Modulated light Uncertainty in error bars too great to show trend STDEV(r) 1.490712
16 Microwave Outlier
17 Laser Data lies well outside nearby data points
18 Quartz Modulator Reject
Value rejected by experimenter or by subsequent analysis
Table XR.Experimenter Rejects from Master Data Set Calc 16 3rd Revision
Experimenter Method Positive Negative
# Experimenter Date c, km/sec error, Value - current No. obs. Method Comments Type Outlier Reject Reject (Xi - Xi+1)sqd (Xi-Xav) (X-Xav)sqd Run No. Run n1 Run n2
1 Roemer-Goldstein (1) 1675 300,000 1500 207.542 50 1 1973 Goldstein published P 256 65720.4496
2 Foucault (P. rejected) 1862.8 298,000 500 -1792.458 80 4 B = 20 m, D = 0.7 mm. P 4000000 -1,744 3040280.45
3 Cornu (Rejected) 1872 298,500 1000 -1292.458 658 3 'crude apparatus' P 250000 -1,244 1546640.45
4 Michelson (rejected) 1878 300,140 480 347.542 10 4 B = 152.4 m, D = 7.5 mm P 2689600 396 157101.2496
5 Young/Forbes (P. reject) 1880 301,382 2000 1589.542 12 3 Base = 5484 meters P 1542564 1,638 2684223.49
6 Newcomb (doubtful av.) 1881.8 299,810 50 17.542 189 4 B = 2550.95 m, D = 18 cm P 2471184 66 4403.6496
7 Newcomb-Dorsey 1881.8 299,780 80 -12.458 ? 4 Meas. rejected by Newcomb R 900 36 1322.0496
8 Perrotin-Prim (rejected) 1900.4 300,032 215 239.542 770 3 discarded analysis P 63504 288 83151.4896
9 Perrotin/Prim-Dorsey 1900.4 300,000 1000 207.542 ? 2 Dorsey, P/P rejected data R 1024 256 65720.4496
10 Aslakson 1949 299,792.4 1.4 -0.058 192 10 P 43097.76 49 2377.5376
Mean 299,743.640 682.64 -48.82 245 SUM 11061873.76 -1.16415E-10 7650941.264
STDEV 922.01 677.0486 922.01
VAR 850104.5849 458394.807 850104.5849
Experiment Type (Method)
0 Unknown The Atomic Clock was first used as the standard in 1967. Statistical Calcs
1 Moons of Jupiter The velocity of light was defined to be a constant in 1983. n1 and n2
2 Aberration The value chosen for c was 299,792.458 km/sec. MSSD 1.44581867 Run Test E(r)
3 Toothed wheel WO Washington Observatory SO Strasburg Observatory
4 Rotating mirror GO Greenich Observatory Ho Honolulu Observatory Run Test Z #REF!
5 Polygonal mirror PO Pulkova Observatory BO Berlin Observatory
6 Waves on wires FO Flower Observatory SFO San Francisco Observatory t Test -0.17
7 ESU/EMU KO Kazin Observatory
8 Kerr cell cav-co -48.818
9 Cavity resonator Type of Data n 10
10 Radar P Primary Data P* Primary value preferred by authors (n)exp.5 3.1622777 Var(r)
11 Geodimeter S Secondary Source STDEV 922.01116
12 Radio interferometer R Reworking of data for P R* Reworking of data preferred by authors
13 Spectral lines Pulkova Data has been corrected 2m 10
14 Tellurometer Lg Error m 5
15 Modulated light Uncertainty in error bars too great to show trend STDEV(r) 1.490712
16 Microwave Outlier
17 Laser Data lies well outside nearby data points
18 Quartz Modulator Reject
Value rejected by experimenter or by subsequent analysis
Table MR. Rejected Methods from Master Data Set Calc 16 3rd Revision
Experimenter Method Positive Negative
# Experimenter Date c, km/sec error, Value - current No. obs. Method Comments Type Outlier Reject Reject (Xi - Xi+1)sqd (Xi-Xav) (X-Xav)sqd Run No. Run n1 Run n2
1 Weber/Kohlrausch 1856 310,700 20000 10907.542 33 7 Q of E method P 13,130 172396900
2 Maxwell 1868 284,000 20000 -15792.458 12 7 Electrometric method. P 712890000 -13,570 184144900
3 W.Thomson/King 1869 280,900 8300 -18892.458 33 7 Electrometric method. P 9610000 -16,670 277888900
4 McKichan 1874 289,700 6800 -10092.458 33 7 Electrometric method. P 77440000 -7,870 61936900
5 Rowland 1879 298,400 3400 -1392.458 33 7 Q of E method P 75690000 830 688900
6 Hockin 1879 296,700 3000 -3092.458 33 7 Capacities method P 2890000 -870 756900
7 Ayrton/Perry 1879 296,000 3000 -3792.458 33 7 Capacities method P 490000 -1,570 2464900
8 Shida 1880 295,500 3000 -4292.458 33 7 Electrometric method. P 250000 -2,070 4284900
9 Stoletov 1881 299,000 2000 -792.458 33 7 Capacities method P 12250000 1,430 2044900
10 Exner 1882 287,000 23000 -12792.458 33 7 Electrometric method. P 144000000 -10,570 111724900
11 J.J.Thomson 1883 296,400 20000 -3392.458 33 7 Capacities method P 88360000 -1,170 1368900
12 Klemencic 1884 301,880 1500 2087.542 33 7 Capacities method P 30030400 4,310 18576100
13 Colley 1886 301,500 6000 1707.542 33 7 E.O. method P 144400 3,930 15444900
14 Himstedt 1887 300,570 750 777.542 33 7 Capacities method P 864900 3,000 9000000
15 Thomson et al. 1888 292,000 5250 -7792.458 33 7 Electrometric method. P 73444900 -5,570 31024900
16 W.Thomson 1889 300,500 1000 707.542 33 7 Electrometric method. P 72250000 2,930 8584900
17 Rosa 1889 300,000 800 207.542 33 7 Capacities method P 250000 2,430 5904900
18 J.J.Thomson/Searle 1890 299,600 600 -192.458 23 7 Capacities method P 160000 2,030 4120900
19 Pellat 1891 300,920 600 1127.542 33 7 Electrometric method. P 1742400 3,350 11222500
20 Abraham 1892 299,850 350 57.542 33 7 Capacities method P 1144900 2,280 5198400
21 Trowbridge/Duane 1895 300,395 5600 602.542 7 6 line base = 58.6 m. P 297025 2,825 7980625
22 Hurmuzescu 1897 300,100 300 307.542 65 7 Electrometric method P 87025 2,530 6400900
23 Webster 1898 302,590 3000 2797.542 33 7 E.O. method P 6200100 5,020 25200400
24 Perot/Fabry 1898 299,730 300 -62.458 33 7 Electrometric method P 8179600 2,160 4665600
25 Lodge/Glazebrook 1899 300,900 12000 1107.542 33 7 E.O. method P 1368900 3,330 11088900
26 McKinley 1950 299,780.0 70 -12.458 100 18 spread of 500 km/sec P 1254400 2,210 4884100
27 Houstoun 1950 299,775.0 9 -17.458 20 18 spread of 180 km/sec P 25 2,205 4862025
Mean 297,570.000 5578.85185 -2222.46 34 SUM 1321288975 0 993861950
STDEV 6182.67 7070.40311 6182.67
VAR 38225459.62 49990600.2 38225459.62
Experiment Type (Method)
0 Unknown The Atomic Clock was first used as the standard in 1967. Statistical Calcs
1 Moons of Jupiter The velocity of light was defined to be a constant in 1983. n1 and n2
2 Aberration The value chosen for c was 299,792.458 km/sec. MSSD 1.3294492 Run Test E(r) ######
3 Toothed wheel WO Washington Observatory SO Strasburg Observatory
4 Rotating mirror GO Greenich Observatory Ho Honolulu Observatory Run Test Z #REF!
5 Polygonal mirror PO Pulkova Observatory BO Berlin Observatory
6 Waves on wires FO Flower Observatory SFO San Francisco Observatory t Test -1.87
7 ESU/EMU KO Kazin Observatory
8 Kerr cell cav-co -2222.458
9 Cavity resonator Type of Data n 27
10 Radar P Primary Data P* Primary value preferred by authors (n)exp.5 5.1961524 Var(r) ####
11 Geodimeter S Secondary Source STDEV 6182.6741
12 Radio interferometer R Reworking of data for P R* Reworking of data preferred by authors
13 Spectral lines Pulkova Data has been corrected 2m 27
14 Tellurometer Lg Error m 13.5
15 Modulated light Uncertainty in error bars too great to show trend STDEV(r) 2.5476233
16 Microwave Outlier
17 Laser Data lies well outside nearby data points
18 Quartz Modulator Reject
Value rejected by experimenter or by subsequent analysis