By James Montgomery Boice
|Matthew 23 1 Then said Jesus to the crowds and to his disciples, 2 "The scribes and the Pharisees sit on Moses' seat; 3 so practice and observe whatever they tell you, but not what they do; for they preach, but do not practice. 4 They bind heavy burdens, hard to bear, and lay them on men's shoulders; but they themselves will not move them with their finger. 5 They do all their deeds to be seen by men; for they make their phylacteries broad and their fringes long, 6 and they love the place of honor at feasts and the best seats in the synagogues, 7 and salutations in the market places, and being called rabbi by men. 8 But you are not to be called rabbi, for you have one teacher, and you are all brethren. 9 And call no man your father on earth, for you have one Father, who is in heaven. 10 Neither be called masters, for you have one master, the Christ. 11 He who is greatest among you shall be your servant; 12 whoever exalts himself will be humbled, and whoever humbles himself will be exalted. 13 "But woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! because you shut the kingdom of heaven against men; for you neither enter yourselves, nor allow those who would enter to go in. 14 15 Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for you traverse sea and land to make a single proselyte, and when he becomes a proselyte, you make him twice as much a child of hell as yourselves. 16 "Woe to you, blind guides, who say, 'If any one swears by the temple, it is nothing; but if any one swears by the gold of the temple, he is bound by his oath.' 17 You blind fools! For which is greater, the gold or the temple that has made the gold sacred? 18 And you say, 'If any one swears by the altar, it is nothing; but if any one swears by the gift that is on the altar, he is bound by his oath.' 19 You blind men! For which is greater, the gift or the altar that makes the gift sacred? 20 So he who swears by the altar, swears by it and by everything on it; 21 and he who swears by the temple, swears by it and by him who dwells in it; 22 and he who swears by heaven, swears by the throne of God and by him who sits upon it. 23 "Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for you tithe mint and dill and cummin, and have neglected the weightier matters of the law, justice and mercy and faith; these you ought to have done, without neglecting the others. 24 You blind guides, straining out a gnat and swallowing a camel! 25 "Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for you cleanse the outside of the cup and of the plate, but inside they are full of extortion and rapacity. 26 You blind Pharisee! first cleanse the inside of the cup and of the plate, that the outside also may be clean. 27 "Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for you are like whitewashed tombs, which outwardly appear beautiful, but within they are full of dead men's bones and all uncleanness. 28 So you also outwardly appear righteous to men, but within you are full of hypocrisy and iniquity. 29 "Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for you build the tombs of the prophets and adorn the monuments of the righteous, 30 saying, 'If we had lived in the days of our fathers, we would not have taken part with them in shedding the blood of the prophets.' 31 Thus you witness against yourselves, that you are sons of those who murdered the prophets. 32 Fill up, then, the measure of your fathers. 33 You serpents, you brood of vipers, how are you to escape being sentenced to hell? 34 Therefore I send you prophets and wise men and scribes, some of whom you will kill and crucify, and some you will scourge in your synagogues and persecute from town to town, 35 that upon you may come all the righteous blood shed on earth, from the blood of innocent Abel to the blood of Zechariah the son of Barachiah, whom you murdered between the sanctuary and the altar. 36 Truly, I say to you, all this will come upon this generation. 37 "O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, killing the prophets and stoning those who are sent to you! How often would I have gathered your children together as a hen gathers her brood under her wings, and you would not! 38 Behold, your house is forsaken and desolate. 39 For I tell you, you will not see me again, until you say, 'Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord.'"|
If anyone ever finds himself thinking that in matters of religion all views arc relative and any sincere faith and practice will do, that person needs to read. Jesus' denunciation of the Pharisees' religion preserved in Matthew 23. People have compared religion to a mountain with heaven on top and with many roads that lead up to it. Or they have thought like Edward Gibbon, the author of The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, who said that in the days of the empire the various modes of worship that prevailed "were considered by the people as equally true, by the philosophers as equally false, and by the magistrates as equally useful."
Jesus did not accept these easy misconceptions. He was aware of our faults and understood our failures, but he never suggested for a moment that any faith would do. On the contrary, he taught that there is but one way to God, namely, himself (John 14:6), and that any teaching that masks that way or keeps men and women from it is damnable. Matthew 23, the chapter we come to now, is the fifth of six collections of Jesus' teachings in this Gospel. The others are the Sermon on the Mount (Matt. 5-7); the commissioning of the Twelve (Matt. 10:5-42); the parables of the kingdom (Matt. 13: 1-52); teaching about the character of those who will be part of the kingdom (Matt. 18); and the sermon on the Mount of Olives that follows chapter 23 (Matt. 24-25).
Matthew 23 is probably a collection of things Jesus said not only at this time but on other occasions as well. It has a parallel in Luke 11:37-54 from an earlier point in his ministry. Matthew 23 also runs into the longer and last discourse in chapters 24 and 25, though it should be considered separately. It is radically different in its theme, and it is addressed to a different audience, to the crowds and teachers of the law rather than to the disciples exclusively. Moreover, it is a powerful climax to the section of the Gospel that I have called "The King's Final Break with Judaism." Jesus had spoken against the religion of the Pharisees earlier (Matt. 15:7). He had warned his disciples about their harmful teachings (Matt. 16:5-12). Here his exposure and warnings become public. The Pharisees and the teachers of the law had rejected him. They were even then plotting to have him killed. Now he rejects them and warns those he is about to leave behind of the Pharisees' deadly influence.
The Problem with the Pharisees
Matthew Henry, the author of the magnificent six-volume Commentary on the Whole Bible says about some hypocritical preachers: "When in the pulpit, [they] preach so well that it is a pity they should ever come out; but, when out of the pulpit, [they] live so ill that it is a pity they should ever come in." This is what Jesus seems to be saying at the start of the chapter, though his words grow more negative as his exposure of the Pharisees proceeds. These men taught the Scriptures; in that they were right. Their teachings, when accurate, should be obeyed. On the other hand, their practices belied their teaching and should not be imitated.
What was wrong with the Pharisees? We must remember that they were the most highly regarded figures of their day. They believed the Scriptures and had made it their duty to obey them in even the smallest particulars. Their very name meant "separated," meaning that they were trying to separate themselves from all contaminations of sin. They were not flagrant sexual offenders nor outright thieves nor murderers. When the Pharisee of Jesus' parable said he was neither a robber, nor an evildoer, nor an adulterer and that he fasted twice a week and gave a tithe of all he acquired, he was probably being quite honest. This was the way these men actually lived.
What was wrong with them then? The answer given in verses 4-7 is this: Their character was the exact opposite of that required of the citizens of Christ's kingdom (Matt. 18:1-35), which meant that in spite of their religious professions and stringent legal practices, they did not actually know God and had not been changed inwardly by him. They should have been humble, compassionate, loving, and forgiving, as Jesus was. But they were actually: (I) hypocritical ("they do not practice what they preach," v. 3): (2) indifferent ("they tie up heavy loads and put them on men's shoulders, but they themselves are not willing to lift a finger to move them," v. 4); and (3) proud ("everything they do is done for men to see," v. 5). These men wanted to be teachers. This is what "Moses' seat" refers to. There was actually a stone seat at the front of most synagogues, and rabbis sat down to teach. Jesus had done this himself when he preached his first sermon in the synagogue at Nazareth (Luke 4:20). We preserve the idea when we speak of a professorial "chair" at a university. The Pharisees had been using their position as teachers to get praise for themselves while making it nearly impossible for those they taught actually to learn the Bible's truths and come to God, and Jesus strongly condemned them for those sins.
A Contrast: Jesus' Teaching
Jesus' teaching was a reversal of the Pharisees' desires for themselves (vv. 8-10). They wanted to be thought important and to be praised by the people for their religious achievements. But Jesus said that his disciples were to be self-effacing and humble, even to the point of declining titles such as "rabbi," "father," and "teacher," and to be servants to other people instead. Jesus did not mean there should never be teachers in the church, for the abilities to pastor and teach were some of the gifts to be given to the church by the risen Lord (Eph. 4:11). He only meant that his followers were not to seek such positions in order to be praised by men.
Verses 11-12 are a reiteration of Jesus' teaching about the character of those who would follow him, already considered in the study of chapter ]8: ''The greatest among you will be your servant. For whoever exalts himself will be humbled, and whoever humbles himself will be exalted." This seems to have been Jesus' favorite text, since he taught it in various forms and on numerous occasions.
Seven Terrible Woes
In the Sermon on the Mount, Jesus had pronounced multiple blessings on the godly. Here, in the latter half of Matthew 23, he pronounces seven woes on the wicked. This follows an established Old Testament pattern, seen for example in Isaiah 5:8-23, where there are six woes, and in Habakkuk 2:6-20, where there are five. A woe is a lament or wail concerning the final end for evil people. Here each woe is followed by a reason for it.
I. For making salvation hard for other people (v. 13). In the first part of chapter 23, Jesus criticized the Pharisees for wanting to be at the top of the religious pyramid, to lead the parade, as we might say. But in their desire to receive the praise of the people, it is as if they had led the parade to the very doors of heaven but then had refused to go in and had effectively blocked the door for others. The kingdom of heaven is Christ's kingdom, of course. So Jesus is saying that the Pharisees were standing in the way of others who, apart from them, might find salvation.
This is a terrible thing to say of religious leaders, but it is a true indictment of many in our day as well as in the time of Jesus. Is it not true of ministers who lead Christian congregations but who never explain the way of salvation through faith in Christ alone? Is it not a just indictment of seminary professors who undermine belief in the authority of the Bible, the deity of Christ, miracles, the efficacy of Jesus' atoning death, and the bodily resurrection, while pretending to serve the church of Christ that pays their salaries? Is it not a proper assessment of professors who write destructive books masquerading as explanations of the Bible's teaching? I know of countless examples of such Pharisaic evils, and I can echo Christ's judgment when he calls down woe on such people for their conduct.
Woe! Woe! A thousand times woe. Would it not be better for such teachers that millstones had been hung around their necks and that they had been cast into the sea rather than have been allowed to lead even one of Christ's little ones to destruction (Matt. 18:6)?
2. For corrupting converts (v. 15). The second of Jesus' woes goes beyond the first, for now it is not merely a question of false teachers stopping people from entering Christ's kingdom but of their drawing some into their own corrupt camp and corrupting them by doing so.
Over the centuries the Jews had not been a particularly evangelistic people, since being a Jew was usually defined in ethnic terms. Yet there seems to have been a truly evangelistic fervor during the time of Jesus Christ. We see a reflection of this in the Judaizers who opposed Paul, traveling as far as Galatia to corrupt the fledgling faith of his Gentile converts. Jesus acknowledged the Pharisees' zeal to "travel over land and sea to win a single convert." But what is the value of doing so if the convert becomes "twice as much a son of hell" as those who have converted him? It is an observable fact that people converted to a fanatical position are often more corrupt in their zeal than those who were in the movement from the start.
3. For trivializing religion (vv. 16-22). The third accusation deals with the casuistry' of these religious professionals. Casuistry involves making minute distinctions in law in order to avoid the true meaning of the law or escape it" consequences. In explaining this indictment, Jesus used examples of which he had spoken at other times and in other places, chiefly the way in which lawyers distinguished between legally binding and nonbinding oaths. Their position was that only oaths taken in the name of God were binding. But since the Jews did not usually use the name of God in their speech but rather employed euphemisms such as "heaven," or the "temple," or God's "throne," it became a debatable matter whether a specific oath was in the name of God or not. The Jews would call swearing by the temple invalid, while swearing by the gold of the temple was valid. Swearing by the altar was insignificant, but swearing by the gift that had been placed on the altar counted.
This is a trivialization of truth, and it was countered by Jesus when he said in the Sermon on the Mount, "But I tell you, Do not swear at all. Simply let your 'Yes' be 'Yes,' and your 'No,' 'No'; anything beyond this comes from the evil one" (Matt. 5:34, 37). Jesus called people who handle truth in this useless and corrupting way "blind guides," meaning that they cannot see spiritual issues clearly and therefore not only lead others astray but fall into a pit themselves (Matt. 15:14), Are we to suppose that there is nothing of this in today's religious circles? I suggest that this happens whenever teachers make delicate distinctions about things the Bible teaches, arguing, "This may be sin, but this closely related type of misconduct is not" or, Jesus may be saying this, but again he may he saying something quite different." They fail to take the Bible's statements at face value and fail to insist not only that truth is truth but that it is always truth and is binding on everyone.
Process theology is especially guilty of this, for it asserts that God himself is changing and that what was true at one time is not necessarily true today and that what was wrong in the days of our fathers may actually be virtuous now, Indeed, we ourselves are changing. We are creating reality, and the values we create for ourselves are as valid as those from any former moment of world history. Ministers are guilty of this failure when they shade the truth of Bible doctrine so as not to offend powerful or wealthy people or merely those who listen to them.
4. For neglecting what is actually important (vv. 23-24). Jesus' fourth charge is that the Pharisees fretted over the law's minutia while neglecting matters that were ultimately important. His example is the way the Pharisees handled tithing. The law required tithing of grain, wine, oil, and the firstborn of the flocks (Deut. 14:22-29). Leviticus 27:30 also mentions fruit from trees. But the Pharisees had greatly expanded this to include a tenth of even household spices such as mint, dill, and cumin. These were grown in household plots; and existed in small amounts. Jesus' complaint, therefore, is about their preoccupation with mere trivia. He docs not say they are wrong to tithe spices. On the contrary, they should not neglect such tithing (v. 23). What was wrong is that they allowed a concern for minutia to obscure such weightier matters as "justice, mercy and faithfulness" (v. 23).
Do we do the same today? We do if we allow small points of theology or religious practice to crowd out the pursuit of justice for every human being, showing mercy to the poor and helpless, and being faithful to God in living for and serving him. Micah asked, "And what docs the LORD require of you?" He answered wisely, "To act justly and to love mercy and to walk humbly with your God" (Micah 6:8).
3. For self-indulgence (vv. 25-26). The Pharisees debated about what means to keep a kosher kitchen, and the rules they devised were many and complex. William Barclay reports on what some of them were like.
An earthen vessel which is hollow becomes unclean only on the inside and not on the outside; and it can only be cleaned by being broken. The following earthen vessels cannot become unclean at all--a flat plate without a rim, an open coal-shovel, a grid-iron with holes in it for parching grains of wheat. On the other hand, a plate with a rim, or an earthen spice-box, or a writing-case can become unclean. Of vessels made of leather, bone, wood and glass, flat ones do not become unclean; deep ones do. If they arc broken, they become clean.
After a few more examples, Barclay concludes: "The food or drink inside a vessel might have been obtained by cheating or extortion or theft; it might be luxurious and gluttonous; that did not matter, so long as the vessel itself was ceremonially clean."
The obvious application of this is to the concern even most church-going people seem to have for keeping up appearances. As long as we go to church, talk nicely, give a bit of our money to charitable causes, and do our civic duty, it does not seem to matter much whether we are dishonest in business, covetous in money matters, cruel in dealings with our families, selfish, proud, or arrogant. He may even say, "What I do in my own private life does not matter; it's nobody's business but my own." Jesus did not think this way. On the contrary, he said, "You hypocrites! You clean the outside of the cup and dish, but inside they are full of greed and self-indulgence. Blind Pharisee! First clean the inside of the cup and dish, and then the outside also will be clean" (vv. 25-26).
6. For wickedness within (vv. 27-28). The fifth woe leads naturally to the sixth, for having spoken of the dirty insides of their lives, like the contaminated inside of an outwardly polished cup, Jesus added the well-known illustration of whitewashed tombs containing "dead men's bones and everything unclean," a euphemism for decaying human matter. This was an apt illustration for the moment. This was Passover week, and it was a Jewish practice to use the preceding month of Adar to renew the whitewashing on tombs with the purpose of marking them clearly so the pious who were on their way to Jerusalem for the Passover would not accidentally defile themselves by touching a place where the bodies of the dead were buried. Here Jesus criticizes the Pharisees, first for their hypocrisy, whitewashed without but corrupt within, but also for their fears about outward ceremonial defilement without being profoundly and more rightly troubled by the inward pollution of their lives.
If we are troubled by our equally polluted lives, we will flee to the cross of Christ where alone a true cleansing from sin may be found.
7. For the murder of God's prophets (vv, 29-36). The seventh of these woes is both the climax and the most damning accusation. It was the charge that the Pharisees were the true sons of their ancestral fathers who killed the prophets of God who had been sent to them. Their fathers had murdered all the righteous persons of the past, from Abel, whose death is recounted in the earliest chapters of Genesis, to Zechariah, whose murder is recorded in 2 Chronicles 24:21, the last book of the Hebrew Bible, wicked churchmen always kill the righteous. In verse 34, Jesus switches from the past ("shedding the blood of the prophets," v, 30) to the future, saying, "Therefore I am sending you prophets and wise men and teachers. Some of them you will kill and crucify; others you will flog in your synagogues and pursue from town to town. And so upon you will come all the righteous blood that has been shed on earth" (v. 34-35), This happened, The early gospel preachers were flogged, pursued, and killed. Paul alone is an example. At last a terrible judgment fell on Israel through the destruction of their capital city and nation by the Romans.
Speaking the Truth with Tears
The last verses of Matthew 23 contain Jesus' final lament and prophecy, and they show that his judgments on Israel's leaders were spoken more with tears than with wrath (v. 37-39), He cried, "O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, you who kill the prophets and stone those sent to you, how often 1 have longed to gather your children together, as a hen gathers her chicks under her wings, but you were not willing, Look, your house is left to you desolate, For I tell you, you will not see me again until you say, 'Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord.'" We have all known people who like to cry woe and call down wrath on sinners. But no one is ready to speak about judgment who has not first shed tears for those who are affected. Luke says that Jesus literally wept over Jerusalem (Luke 19:41-44). You and I have seen many wrongs. There is much evil in the world. But have we ever really wept for anyone?
(The Gospel of Matthew, An Expositional Commentary,
Baker Books 2001. Grand Rapids).