Forum Class #5
Now the word of the LORD came to me, saying: "Son of man, you dwell in the midst of a rebellious house, which has eyes to see but does not see, and ears to hear but does not hear; for they are a rebellious house. "Therefore, son of man, prepare your belongings for captivity, and go into captivity by day in their sight. You shall go from your place into captivity to another place in their sight. It may be that they will consider, though they are a rebellious house. "By day you shall bring out your belongings in their sight, as though going into captivity; and at evening you shall go in their sight, like those who go into captivity. "Dig through the wall in their sight, and carry your belongings out through it. "In their sight you shall bear them on your shoulders and carry them out at twilight; you shall cover your face, so that you cannot see the ground, for I have made you a sign to the house of Israel." So I did as I was commanded. I brought out my belongings by day, as though going into captivity, and at evening I dug through the wall with my hand. I brought them out at twilight, and I bore them on my shoulder in their sight. And in the morning the word of the LORD came to me, saying, "Son of man, has not the house of Israel, the rebellious house, said to you, 'What are you doing?' "Say to them, 'Thus says the Lord GOD: "This burden concerns the prince in Jerusalem and all the house of Israel who are among them."' "Say, 'I am a sign to you. As I have done, so shall it be done to them; they shall be carried away into captivity.' "And the prince who is among them shall bear his belongings on his shoulder at twilight and go out. They shall dig through the wall to carry them out through it. He shall cover his face, so that he cannot see the ground with his eyes. "I will also spread My net over him, and he shall be caught in My snare. I will bring him to Babylon, to the land of the Chaldeans; yet he shall not see it, though he shall die there. "I will scatter to every wind all who are around him to help him, and all his troops; and I will draw out the sword after them. "Then they shall know that I am the LORD, when I scatter them among the nations and disperse them throughout the countries."But I will spare a few of their men from the sword, from famine, and from pestilence, that they may declare all their abominations among the Gentiles wherever they go. Then they shall know that I am the LORD." Moreover the word of the LORD came to me, saying, "Son of man, eat your bread with quaking, and drink your water with trembling and anxiety. "And say to the people of the land, 'Thus says the Lord GOD to the inhabitants of Jerusalem and to the land of Israel: "They shall eat their bread with anxiety, and drink their water with dread, so that her land may be emptied of all who are in it, because of the violence of all those who dwell in it. "Then the cities that are inhabited shall be laid waste, and the land shall become desolate; and you shall know that I am the LORD."'" And the word of the LORD came to me, saying, "Son of man, what is this proverb that you people have about the land of Israel, which says, 'The days are prolonged, and every vision fails'? "Tell them therefore, 'Thus says the Lord GOD: "I will lay this proverb to rest, and they shall no more use it as a proverb in Israel." But say to them, "The days are at hand, and the fulfillment of every vision. "For no more shall there be any false vision or flattering divination within the house of Israel. "For I am the LORD. I speak, and the word which I speak will come to pass; it will no more be postponed; for in your days, O rebellious house, I will say the word and perform it," says the Lord GOD.'" Again the word of the LORD came to me, saying, "Son of man, look, the house of Israel is saying, 'The vision that he sees is for many days from now, and he prophesies of times far off.' "Therefore say to them, 'Thus says the Lord GOD: "None of My words will be postponed any more, but the word which I speak will be done," says the Lord GOD.'"
And the word of the LORD came to me, saying, "Son of man, prophesy against the prophets of Israel who prophesy, and say to those who prophesy out of their own heart, 'Hear the word of the LORD!'" Thus says the Lord GOD: "Woe to the foolish prophets, who follow their own spirit and have seen nothing! "O Israel, your prophets are like foxes in the deserts. "You have not gone up into the gaps to build a wall for the house of Israel to stand in battle on the day of the LORD. "They have envisioned futility and false divination, saying, 'Thus says the LORD!' But the LORD has not sent them; yet they hope that the word may be confirmed. "Have you not seen a futile vision, and have you not spoken false divination? You say, 'The LORD says,' but I have not spoken." Therefore thus says the Lord GOD: "Because you have spoken nonsense and envisioned lies, therefore I am indeed against you," says the Lord GOD. "My hand will be against the prophets who envision futility and who divine lies; they shall not be in the assembly of My people, nor be written in the record of the house of Israel, nor shall they enter into the land of Israel. Then you shall know that I am the Lord GOD. "Because, indeed, because they have seduced My people, saying, 'Peace!' when there is no peace--and one builds a wall, and they plaster it with untempered mortar--"say to those who plaster it with untempered mortar, that it will fall. There will be flooding rain, and you, O great hailstones, shall fall; and a stormy wind shall tear it down. "Surely, when the wall has fallen, will it not be said to you, 'Where is the mortar with which you plastered it?'" Therefore thus says the Lord GOD: "I will cause a stormy wind to break forth in My fury; and there shall be a flooding rain in My anger, and great hailstones in fury to consume it. "So I will break down the wall you have plastered with untempered mortar, and bring it down to the ground, so that its foundation will be uncovered; it will fall, and you shall be consumed in the midst of it. Then you shall know that I am the LORD. "Thus will I accomplish My wrath on the wall and on those who have plastered it with untempered mortar; and I will say to you, 'The wall is no more, nor those who plastered it, 'that is, the prophets of Israel who prophesy concerning Jerusalem, and who see visions of peace for her when there is no peace,'" says the Lord GOD. "Likewise, son of man, set your face against the daughters of your people, who prophesy out of their own heart; prophesy against them, "and say, 'Thus says the Lord GOD: "Woe to the women who sew magic charms on their sleeves and make veils for the heads of people of every height to hunt souls! Will you hunt the souls of My people, and keep yourselves alive?"And will you profane Me among My people for handfuls of barley and for pieces of bread, killing people who should not die, and keeping people alive who should not live, by your lying to My people who listen to lies?" 'Therefore thus says the Lord GOD: "Behold, I am against your magic charms by which you hunt souls there like birds. I will tear them from your arms, and let the souls go, the souls you hunt like birds. "I will also tear off your veils and deliver My people out of your hand, and they shall no longer be as prey in your hand. Then you shall know that I am the LORD. "Because with lies you have made the heart of the righteous sad, whom I have not made sad; and you have strengthened the hands of the wicked, so that he does not turn from his wicked way to save his life. "Therefore you shall no longer envision futility nor practice divination; for I will deliver My people out of your hand, and you shall know that I am the LORD."'"
False prophets and prophetesses
Warnings about the future often go unheeded. For many years we have become familiar with forecasts of doom for Planet Earth unless mankind curbs its present wastefulness and misuse of natural resources. It is not disputed that emission of poisonous gases from fuel consumption by the petrol-driven motorcar contributes heavily to the poisoning of the planet. Yet there are few, if any, indications of a willingness by the nations of the world to do anything significant about it. The technology exists for radical changes, but they would be hugely unpopular. We prefer to live for today, quietly ignoring the forecasters of doom. Isaiah had cried out, 'Who has believed our message?' (Isa. 53: 1). Things were no different in Ezekiel's day.
A hasty departure (12:1-16)
'Men display great ingenuity in making excuses for rejecting the message of God's love,' Spurgeon said. 'They display marvelous skill, not in seeking salvation, but in fashioning reasons for refusing it; they are dexterous in avoiding grace, and in securing their own ruin. They hold up first this shield and then the other, to ward off the gracious arrows of the gospel of Jesus Christ, which are only meant to slay the deadly sins which lurk in their bosoms. This was precisely Ezekiel's experience.
Having 'returned' from Jerusalem (in spirit, not in body). [Chapters 8-11] Ezekiel is reminded of something he had been told two years earlier: that the Israelites were 'rebellious' by nature (12:2 twice, 3,9: cf. 2:3-3:11). They were not disposed to listen to his words of doom! No doubt some of the exiled Jews took refuge in the message of a remnant that would be delivered and assumed they would be part of it. Perhaps some took the view that because Ezekiel's message largely concerned folk in Jerusalem, with whom they had little sympathy, it was not designed for them at all. And those who did believe that it had relevance for them saw it as being so far in the future that it need not concern them just yet; they could get on with living their lives.
To overcome this apathy, Ezekiel is once more asked to engage in one of his enactment rituals. He is told to gather his belongings as though he were about to make a journey (12:3). This apparently took all day (12:4), though his belongings -- those that could reasonably be carried -- would have been few. In the evening, when a crowd had gathered, he dug through a hole in the wall (of his house, or the courtyard outside), and left with his face covered (12:5-6). The following day, having returned, Ezekiel has to give an account of himself (12:8).
The ritual has all been about Israel's 'prince' (King Zedekiah. the current, and last, monarch of Judah and Nebuchadnezzar's 'puppet' following the surrender of Jehoiachin), together with the people of Jerusalem who survive the conquest of Nebuchadnezzar; they will be taken into captivity (12: 10). What Ezekiel has performed is a 'sign' of this deportation (12: 11).
The whole pathetic story is recalled in 2 Kings 25, where Zedekiah made an attempt to leave at night, disguised so as not to be seen. The Babylonians captured him and he was led away to Riblah, Nebuchadnezzar's headquarters. There his sons, together with seventy other leaders of Jerusalem, were executed before him. Zedekiah was blinded and led off to Babylon where, following a period in prison, he too was executed (Jer. 52:7-11). Ezekiel's prophecy was fulfilled. And it was only four years away (c. 588 B.C.). Those deluding themselves that these events were far away were entirely wrong. [See below].
Alive, but disgraced!
Once more Ezekiel has a word about some who will survive the defeat of Jerusalem. Despite the 'sword, famine and pestilence' -- the signs of God's judgment -- God assures Ezekiel's hearers: 'I will spare a few of them ... so that in the nations where they go they may acknowledge all their detestable practices, Then they will know that I am the Lord' (12:16). But he does not mean to imply that all those who survived the fall of Jerusalem were true believers. On the contrary, as Calvin observes, 'Although some remained alive and unconcerned by either the sword, or famine, or pestilence, yet they were cursed, since their expulsion to a distance served no other purpose than that of spreading their disgrace and rendering them detestable, so that the profane Gentiles acknowledged that they deserved vengeance for their wickedness. " It seems as though it might have been better if these poor folk had not survived at all! Ezekiel is warning his obstinate hearers, before it is too late, that since God has acted towards them as a Father, and they have not acknowledged his favour, they will one day be compelled to meet him as their Judge -- to their eternal destruction.
Afraid of God? (12:17-20)
Is it ever right to be afraid of God? Most Christians would say that it is right for unbelievers, but not for believers. John Murray was more careful in his reply: 'The only proper answer is that it is the essence of impiety not to be afraid of God when there is reason to be afraid." Professing believers in Judah had every reason to be afraid!
Having already conveyed a message foretelling a food shortage during the siege of Jerusalem by the meager rations which he had been eating over the last year, the prophet now adds a further dimension, in the way that he eat his food. His hands are to tremble as he eats and his face is to portray a fearful expression (12:18). It should be noted that the word 'tremble' is used elsewhere to describe an earthquake! (Amos 1:1). Those who watched him must have been revolted to witness the soiling of his garments and generally embarrassed by his 'table manners'!
But what they should have felt was not embarrassment but fear. For the explanation of Ezekiel's actions is altogether distressing: 'Say to the people of the land: "This is what the Sovereign Lord says about those living in Jerusalem and in the land of Israel: They will eat their food in anxiety and drink their water in despair, for their land will be stripped of everything in it because of the violence of all who live there'" (12:19).
Violence generates violence! In the part of the world where I live violence is a fact of everyday life. It is a grizzly spiral of despair as one atrocity calls for another in retaliation. Judah was going to reap what they had sown. When the forces of Babylonian darkness came down upon them they would have no one to blame but themselves. 'Do not be afraid of those who kill the body but cannot kill the soul,' Jesus said. 'Rather, be afraid of the One who can destroy both soul and body in hell' (Man. 10:28).
Three times in chapter 12 we discover the expression: 'Then you [or 'they'] will know that I am the Lord' (12:15,16,20). It has already occurred eight times in the first eleven chapters and will occur forty-three more times before we finish with Ezekiel. Clearly, it is an important expression. God is concerned to demonstrate his power and glory. The 'LORD' (with capital letters in the NIV text) always refers to God's covenant name: YAHWEH (occasionally, though inaccurately, rendered, in the Authorized Version by the time-honoured' Jehovah', Exod. 6:3; Isa. 12:2). When Moses asked the name of the one who spoke to him from the burning bush, he was told God's name was 'I AM WHO [OR WHAT] I AM' (Exod. 3:13). God was revealing himself to Moses as sovereign, self-sufficient and self-consistent. Later, 'I AM' is identified with Yahweh (Exod. 3: 15), thus further revealing that 'the Lord' whose name appears some 6,700 times in the Old Testament is invincible, inexhaustible and limitless in his power. For believers, he is safe to trust at all times and in all places. For unbelievers (those to whom Ezekiel mainly refers) he is greatly to be feared. If men will not acknowledge him as sovereign, and bow the knee in worship, they will have cause to confess his power and tremble.
Popular proverbs (12:21-28)
What did his hearers make of Ezekiel's preaching? Seemingly there were two responses. One section of the community derided it as nonsense. Ezekiel cites a popular proverb, seemingly encouraged by false prophets (12:24): 'The days go by and every vision comes to nothing' (12:21). Ezekiel replies by changing the sound of a few of the Hebrew words, thus making the proverb say, 'The days are near when every vision will he fulfilled' (12:23).
False prophets and prophetesses
Ever since the eighth century, people had grown accustomed to predictions of Judah's downfall. Amos had preached in the prosperous northern kingdom of Israel some thirty years before its downfall. They had the temerity to look forward to the 'the day of the Lord' even when Amos had warned them it was 'a day of darkness and not light' (Amos 5:18). Amos had warned quite specifically about the fall of Jerusalem (Amos 2:4-5), but around 170 years had passed since then and Jerusalem was still standing. Why should they listen to prophets of doom any more?
Peter encountered a similar skepticism about the Second Coming of Jesus Chris!. 'Where is this "coming" he promised?' they asked (2 Peter 3:4). Peter's reply is a fascinating study in answering questions like this one. It is all a matter of faith, of trusting what the Bible -- the Word of God -- says about certain matters, Peter says. 'Dear friends, this is now my second letter to you. I have written both of them as reminders to stimulate you to wholesome thinking. I want you to recall the words spoken in the past by the holy prophets...' (2 Peter 3: 1-2). 'In other words,' Dr Martyn Lloyd-Jones comments, 'in this letter, as indeed in all central matters of the Christian faith, we either accept the revelation or we do not: and the Bible itself tells us that revelation is something which is definitely beyond reason. That is perhaps the great watershed that divides men into two groups at this moment -- those who are prepared to accept the revelation of this Book and those who reject it." Most of those who dwelt in Jerusalem in Ezekiel's day had decided to reject it.
If one section of the community derided his message as nonsense, another section postponed its relevance to another generation. They believed that what Ezekiel said was true enough, but it bore no relevance to them. Ezekiel cites another proverb: 'None of my words will be delayed any longer' (12:28). We saw earlier that some who did believe the words of the prophet hoped that their fulfillment would be in another era, and not their own. When Isaiah warned Hezekiah of his foolishness in showing Babylonian envoys around the treasures of the palace, telling him, 'The lime will surely come when everything in your palace, and all that your fathers have stored up until this day, will be carried off to Babylon,' Hezekiah responded with some measure of relief that at least he was safe! (2 Kings 20:12-21,especially verse 19). This is the way many live their lives - - with no regard for the future. There is ample evidence that this philosophy lies behind the current state of our planet. Future generations will reap the consequences of man's avarice in this century, but who cares? It is the way many respond to God's warning about spiritual matters, too.
These two responses more or less summarize the reaction given to the Word of God by many today. Some are quite open in their hostility to it. They look around and suggest that the Bible has no relevance to their way of life. Its warnings and threats are rejected. Others are loath to be so openly hostile. They give lip-service to the truthfulness of what the Bible says. But they are careful not to believe it in such a way that it affects the way they live. They keep its teachings at arm's length. They are not prepared to reject it entirely; they dismiss the Bible by giving it faint praise. Of the two conditions, the latter is probably the worst. But is it fair that the Israelites should have to suffer this way? That is a question to which the next two chapters will respond. In ease some of Ezekiel's listeners might be entertaining the idea that God's ways were in some sense in violation of what they deserved, Ezekiel underlines the false prophecy and idolatry that pervaded their lives.
Preaching to preachers (13:1-16)
Along with true prophets were false ones, and it was part of the faithfulness and encourage of men like Ezekiel and Jeremiah to denounce them (Jer. 23:9-40), to 'prophesy against the prophets' (13:1). It takes courage and care to preach against preachers. It must never be done out of envy or spite, but always and only out of regard for the truth of God's Word.
Why do false prophets come under such heavy criticism?
I. False prophets are 'liars'
False prophets prophesy 'out of their own imagination' and 'follow their own spirit' (13:2-3). They guess as to what may happen, but their predictions are 'false' and 'a lie' (13:6-7,9). In contrast, Ezekiel brings to them 'the word of the Lord' (13:2). He delivers what 'the Sovereign Lord says' (13:3).
God said to Moses, the archetypal Old Testament prophet, 'I will help you speak and will teach you what to say' (Exod. 4:12; cf. 24:3). Later, God spoke to Moses about a similar process with another prophet (which is, in fact, a reference to Jesus the Prophet): 'I will put my words in his mouth, and he will tell them everything I command him' (Deut. 18: I 8). God gives the same assurance to Jeremiah: 'Now, I have put my words in your mouth' (Jer. 1:9). This emphasis on the actual words given to the prophet by God meant that the prophets were given more than just ideas and impressions, to be formulated into their own words; the very words they spoke were from God. The words a prophet used are even referred to as coming from the Lord. Elijah's words in I Kings 21:19 are referred to in 2 Kings 9:25-26 as the oracle that 'the Lord made'.
2. False prophets are distinguished by their attitude towards God's people
They are like 'jackals among ruins' (13:4). Jesus called them 'ferocious wolves' (Man. 7: 15). Foxes are known to forage litter bins at night in our modern cities. In certain cities in America they are rapidly becoming a major concern. They inhabit the ruins left by others, but are incapable of repairing them. They are only interested in what they can attain for themselves. They are like Diotrephes, who instead of promoting the peace and unity of the flock of God, destroyed it -- all for the sake of his own reputation (3 John 9-10). True prophets, on the other hand, repair the 'breaks in the walls' and thus prepare them for 'the battle on the day of the Lord' (13:5).
3. False prophets are untrustworthy
False prophets told people what they wanted to hear. They were like stone masons who covered the defects in their construction by applying a liberal amount of whitewash (13:10-16). What appeared to be a building of some strength was in fact nothing of the sort. It was a sham. The merest push and the wall would come crashing down. The people wanted to hear a message of peace, that all was well; this is what they heard. But God's wrath would come 'against' (13: 15, twice) the wall and those who whitewashed it, and the wall would collapse.
The image of violent winds, hailstones and torrents of rain is reminiscent of the illustration Jesus used to close his Sermon on the Mount. Having warned of false prophets, he went on to describe the foolish man who built his house on sand. With no foundations, he had made the 'wise' man look foolish. But when the storm came, the house built on sand came crashing down. Its builder was untrustworthy.
4. False prophets are identified by their priorities
They prophesy "'Peace", when there is no peace' (13:10). Jeremiah had obviously heard them too (Jer. 6:14). These were prophets who preferred the easier path of appeasement to the costly walk of obedience to the will of God. They placed their own advantage before the true needs of the flock of God. 'They dress the wound of my people as though it were not serious,' Jeremiah said of them. False prophets prefer to tell people that even if they are sinners, it does not matter a great deal. They speak of God's love and ignore his righteousness. They assure their listeners that even if hell exists, it is in this world and not the next. And they do all this to ease their own consciences.
5. False prophets deserve judgment
Any prophet who spoke words which did not come-from the mouth of the Lord' (Jer. 23:16) was a false prophet. Their judgment was to be severe: 'But a prophet who presumes to speak in my name anything I have not commanded him to say, or a prophet who speaks in the name of other gods, must be put to death' (Deut. 18:20). God says to them: 'I am against you' (13:8, cf.15). They will have no part in the new Israel (13:9). Stuart helpfully observes that in the same way as impersonating a police officer is a crime in our society because it 'harmfully defrauds people who trust and obey the police,' so 'Impersonating a true prophet of the Lord was, by God's law, a fraudulent misleading of Israelites in Ezekiel's day."
It would prove a valuable exercise to apply the fivefold assessment of false prophets to the so-called 'prophets' today. In the first place, we can ask of modern-day preachers, are they speaking what the Bible teaches, or are they delivering the ideas of their own minds? Is their concern to build up the flock of God in holiness, or are they simply endeavoring to line their own pockets? Are they faithful to God's message, despite the audience to whom they speak? When King Ahab revealed his insecurity by suggesting to King Jehoshaphat that he hated the prophet Micaiah, he inadvertently testified to the prophet's greatness: he could not be bribed into speaking what the king wanted to hear (2 Chron. 18). 'As surely as the Lord lives,' Micaiah said, 'I can tell him only what my God says' (2 Chron. 18: 13) It is to preachers like Micaiah that we should give heed.
Prophetesses too! (13:17-23)
In the Old Testament, women could not be priests, but they could be prophetesses and queens. The Old Testament also claims one woman judge. Ezekiel's denunciation of prophetesses here is not due to the fact that they were women: like the preceding section, it is false prophetesses. those who have turned to magic and divination, that he denounces. Like the false prophets, they had given false counsel, giving encouragement to evil-doers, while discouraging the righteous (13:22).
Ezekiel points out two areas for comment: firstly, they attached some kind of 'magic charms' to their arms (13:18, 21) and, secondly, they wore 'veils of various lengths' (13:18,21). The veils not only looked like nets, their name sounded a little similar in Hebrew. Ezekiel therefore likens the prophetesses to bird-hunters trapping their unsuspecting enquirers with their witchcraft. Once more, God is 'against' them (13:17,20).
A couple of points are worth noting about magic. The prophetesses, by dabbling in magic, had essentially 'profaned' God (13:19). They had used God's name in vain in their incantations. They had broken the third commandment (Deut. 5:11). They had used the name of God lightly and with disrespect. They had also 'ensnared' the people (13:20). Magic, because it is essentially an evil thing, has a certain power. The 'prince of this world' uses it to capture the minds and hearts of his subjects (John 12:31).
Ezekiel, faithful preacher that he was, pronounced God's judgment on the frauds, liars and exploiters of his day -- even if they did wear religious clothes. Those who tell lies about the future can expect. one day, to find the future has caught up with them. God's Day is coming and then his power will be seen as a force to be reckoned with. 'Then you will know that I am the Lord' (13:23).
One factor that this chapter points up is the real danger of self deceit. It is possible for someone to have a 'temporary faith. ' Calvin makes the point that 'There is a great likeness and affinity between God's elect and those who are given a transitory faith.' Hence the need for self-examination. 'The Holy Spirit admonishes us,' Calvin comments on Ezekiel 13:9, 'that it is not sufficient to suppose men members of the Church because the greater number seem to excel others, just as chaff lies above the wheat and suffocates it: thus hypocrites bury the sons of God whose number is small... Hence let us learn to examine ourselves, and to search whether those interior marks by which God distinguishes his children from strangers belong to us, viz., the living root of piety and faith.'
The Fall of Jerusalem in 586 BC and the Last Days of King Zedekiah
Now it came to pass in the ninth year of his reign, in the tenth month, on the tenth day of the month, that Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon and all his army came against Jerusalem and encamped against it; and they built a siege wall against it all around. So the city was besieged until the eleventh year of King Zedekiah. By the ninth day of the fourth month the famine had become so severe in the city that there was no food for the people of the land. Then the city wall was broken through, and all the men of war fled at night by way of the gate between two walls, which was by the king's garden, even though the Chaldeans were still encamped all around against the city.
And the king went by way of the plain. But the army of the Chaldeans pursued the king, and they overtook him in the plains of Jericho. All his army was scattered from him. So they took the king and brought him up to the king of Babylon at Riblah, and they pronounced judgment on him. Then they killed the sons of Zedekiah before his eyes, put out the eyes of Zedekiah, bound him with bronze fetters, and took him to Babylon.
And in the fifth month, on the seventh day of the month (which was the nineteenth year of King Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon), Nebuzaradan the captain of the guard, a servant of the king of Babylon, came to Jerusalem. He burned the house of the LORD and the king's house; all the houses of Jerusalem, that is, all the houses of the great, he burned with fire. And all the army of the Chaldeans who were with the captain of the guard broke down the walls of Jerusalem all around. Then Nebuzaradan the captain of the guard carried away captive the rest of the people who remained in the city and the defectors who had deserted to the king of Babylon, with the rest of the multitude.
But the captain of the guard left some of the poor of the land as vinedressers and farmers. The bronze pillars that were in the house of the LORD, and the carts and the bronze Sea that were in the house of the LORD, the Chaldeans broke in pieces, and carried their bronze to Babylon. They also took away the pots, the shovels, the trimmers, the spoons, and all the bronze utensils with which the priests ministered. The firepans and the basins, the things of solid gold and solid silver, the captain of the guard took away. The two pillars, one Sea, and the carts, which Solomon had made for the house of the LORD, the bronze of all these articles was beyond measure. The height of one pillar was eighteen cubits, and the capital on it was of bronze. The height of the capital was three cubits, and the network and pomegranates all around the capital were all of bronze. The second pillar was the same, with a network.
And the captain of the guard took Seraiah the chief priest, Zephaniah the second priest, and the three doorkeepers. He also took out of the city an officer who had charge of the men of war, five men of the king's close associates who were found in the city, the chief recruiting officer of the army, who mustered the people of the land, and sixty men of the people of the land who were found in the city. So Nebuzaradan, captain of the guard, took these and brought them to the king of Babylon at Riblah. Then the king of Babylon struck them and put them to death at Riblah in the land of Hamath. Thus Judah was carried away captive from its own land.
Then he made Gedaliah the son of Ahikam, the son of Shaphan, governor over the people who remained in the land of Judah, whom Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon had left. Now when all the captains of the armies, they and their men, heard that the king of Babylon had made Gedaliah governor, they came to Gedaliah at Mizpah--Ishmael the son of Nethaniah, Johanan the son of Careah, Seraiah the son of Tanhumeth the Netophathite, and Jaazaniah the son of a Maachathite, they and their men. And Gedaliah took an oath before them and their men, and said to them, "Do not be afraid of the servants of the Chaldeans. Dwell in the land and serve the king of Babylon, and it shall be well with you."
But it happened in the seventh month that Ishmael the son of Nethaniah, the son of Elishama, of the royal family, came with ten men and struck and killed Gedaliah, the Jews, as well as the Chaldeans who were with him at Mizpah. And all the people, small and great, and the captains of the armies, arose and went to Egypt; for they were afraid of the Chaldeans.
Now it came to pass in the thirty-seventh year of the captivity of Jehoiachin king of Judah, in the twelfth month, on the twenty-seventh day of the month, that Evil-Merodach king of Babylon, in the year that he began to reign, released Jehoiachin king of Judah from prison. He spoke kindly to him, and gave him a more prominent seat than those of the kings who were with him in Babylon. So Jehoiachin changed from his prison garments, and he ate bread regularly before the king all the days of his life. And as for his provisions, there was a regular ration given him by the king, a portion for each day, all the days of his life. (2 Kings 25)
The Record in 2 Kings:
"In his days Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon came up, and Jehoiakim became his vassal for three years. Then he (Jehoiakim) turned and rebelled against him (Nebuchadnezzar). And the LORD sent against him raiding bands of Chaldeans, bands of Syrians, bands of Moabites, and bands of the people of Ammon; He sent them against Judah to destroy it, according to the word of the LORD which He had spoken by His servants the prophets. Surely at the commandment of the LORD this came upon Judah, to remove them from His sight because of the sins of Manasseh, according to all that he had done, and also because of the innocent blood that he had shed; for he had filled Jerusalem with innocent blood, which the LORD would not pardon. Now the rest of the acts of Jehoiakim, and all that he did, are they not written in the book of the chronicles of the kings of Judah? So Jehoiakim rested with his fathers. Then Jehoiachin (Coniah) his son reigned in his place. And the king of Egypt did not come out of his land anymore, for the king of Babylon had taken all that belonged to the king of Egypt from the Brook of Egypt to the River Euphrates. Jehoiachin was eighteen years old when he became king, and he reigned in Jerusalem three months. His mother's name was Nehushta the daughter of Elnathan of Jerusalem. And he did evil in the sight of the LORD, according to all that his father had done. At that time the servants of Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon came up against Jerusalem, and the city was besieged. And Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon came against the city, as his servants were besieging it. Then Jehoiachin king of Judah, his mother, his servants, his princes, and his officers went out to the king of Babylon; and the king of Babylon, in the eighth year of his reign, (597 BC) took him prisoner (along with Ezekiel). And he carried out from there all the treasures of the house of the LORD and the treasures of the king's house, and he cut in pieces all the articles of gold which Solomon king of Israel had made in the temple of the LORD, as the LORD had said. Also he carried into captivity all Jerusalem: all the captains and all the mighty men of valor, ten thousand captives, and all the craftsmen and smiths. None remained except the poorest people of the land. And he carried Jehoiachin captive to Babylon. The king's mother, the king's wives, his officers, and the mighty of the land he carried into captivity from Jerusalem to Babylon. All the valiant men, seven thousand, and craftsmen and smiths, one thousand, all who were strong and fit for war, these the king of Babylon brought captive to Babylon. Then the king of Babylon made Mattaniah, Jehoiachin's uncle, king in his place, and changed his name to Zedekiah.
Zedekiah was twenty-one years old when he became king, and he reigned eleven years in Jerusalem. His mother's name was Hamutal the daughter of Jeremiah of Libnah. He also did evil in the sight of the LORD, according to all that Jehoiakim had done. For because of the anger of the LORD this happened in Jerusalem and Judah, that He finally cast them out from His presence. Then Zedekiah rebelled against the king of Babylon. Now it came to pass in the ninth year of his reign, in the tenth month, on the tenth day of the month, that Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon and all his army came against Jerusalem and encamped against it; and they built a siege wall against it all around. So the city was besieged until the eleventh year of King Zedekiah. By the ninth day of the fourth month the famine had become so severe in the city that there was no food for the people of the land. Then the city wall was broken through, and all the men of war fled at night by way of the gate between two walls, which was by the king's garden, even though the Chaldeans were still encamped all around against the city. And the king went by way of the plain. But the army of the Chaldeans pursued the king, and they overtook him in the plains of Jericho. All his army was scattered from him. So they took the king and brought him up to the king of Babylon at Riblah, and they pronounced judgment on him. Then they killed the sons of Zedekiah before his eyes, put out the eyes of Zedekiah, bound him with bronze fetters, and took him to Babylon. And in the fifth month, on the seventh day of the month (which was the nineteenth year of King Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon), Nebuzaradan the captain of the guard, a servant of the king of Babylon, came to Jerusalem. He burned the house of the LORD and the king's house; all the houses of Jerusalem, that is, all the houses of the great, he burned with fire. And all the army of the Chaldeans who were with the captain of the guard broke down the walls of Jerusalem all around. Then Nebuzaradan the captain of the guard carried away captive the rest of the people who remained in the city and the defectors who had deserted to the king of Babylon, with the rest of the multitude. But the captain of the guard left some of the poor of the land as vinedressers and farmers. The bronze pillars that were in the house of the LORD, and the carts and the bronze Sea that were in the house of the LORD, the Chaldeans broke in pieces, and carried their bronze to Babylon. They also took away the pots, the shovels, the trimmers, the spoons, and all the bronze utensils with which the priests ministered. The firepans and the basins, the things of solid gold and solid silver, the captain of the guard took away. The two pillars, one Sea, and the carts, which Solomon had made for the house of the LORD, the bronze of all these articles was beyond measure. The height of one pillar was eighteen cubits, and the capital on it was of bronze. The height of the capital was three cubits, and the network and pomegranates all around the capital were all of bronze. The second pillar was the same, with a network. And the captain of the guard took Seraiah the chief priest, Zephaniah the second priest, and the three doorkeepers. He also took out of the city an officer who had charge of the men of war, five men of the king's close associates who were found in the city, the chief recruiting officer of the army, who mustered the people of the land, and sixty men of the people of the land who were found in the city. So Nebuzaradan, captain of the guard, took these and brought them to the king of Babylon at Riblah. Then the king of Babylon struck them and put them to death at Riblah in the land of Hamath. Thus Judah was carried away captive from its own land. Then he made Gedaliah the son of Ahikam, the son of Shaphan, governor over the people who remained in the land of Judah, whom Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon had left. Now when all the captains of the armies, they and their men, heard that the king of Babylon had made Gedaliah governor, they came to Gedaliah at Mizpah--Ishmael the son of Nethaniah, Johanan the son of Careah, Seraiah the son of Tanhumeth the Netophathite, and Jaazaniah the son of a Maachathite, they and their men. And Gedaliah took an oath before them and their men, and said to them, "Do not be afraid of the servants of the Chaldeans. Dwell in the land and serve the king of Babylon, and it shall be well with you." But it happened in the seventh month that Ishmael the son of Nethaniah, the son of Elishama, of the royal family, came with ten men and struck and killed Gedaliah, the Jews, as well as the Chaldeans who were with him at Mizpah. And all the people, small and great, and the captains of the armies, arose and went to Egypt; for they were afraid of the Chaldeans. Now it came to pass in the thirty-seventh year of the captivity of Jehoiachin king of Judah, in the twelfth month, on the twenty-seventh day of the month, that Evil-Merodach king of Babylon, in the year that he began to reign, released Jehoiachin king of Judah from prison. He spoke kindly to him, and gave him a more prominent seat than those of the kings who were with him in Babylon. So Jehoiachin changed from his prison garments, and he ate bread regularly before the king all the days of his life. (Possibly with the help of the prophet Daniel). And as for his provisions, there was a regular ration given him by the king, a portion for each day, all the days of his life. (2 Kings 24-25)
The Record in 2 Chronicles
Then the people of the land took Jehoahaz the son of Josiah, and made him king in his father's place in Jerusalem. Jehoahaz was twenty-three years old when he became king, and he reigned three months in Jerusalem. Now the king of Egypt deposed him at Jerusalem; and he imposed on the land a tribute of one hundred talents of silver and a talent of gold. Then the king of Egypt made Jehoahaz's brother Eliakim king over Judah and Jerusalem, and changed his name to Jehoiakim. And Necho took Jehoahaz his brother and carried him off to Egypt. Jehoiakim was twenty-five years old when he became king, and he reigned eleven years in Jerusalem. And he did evil in the sight of the LORD his God. Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon came up against him, and bound him in bronze fetters to carry him off to Babylon. Nebuchadnezzar also carried off some of the articles from the house of the LORD to Babylon, and put them in his temple at Babylon. Now the rest of the acts of Jehoiakim, the abominations which he did, and what was found against him, indeed they are written in the book of the kings of Israel and Judah. Then Jehoiachin his son reigned in his place. Jehoiachin was eight years old when he became king, and he reigned in Jerusalem three months and ten days. And he did evil in the sight of the LORD. At the turn of the year King Nebuchadnezzar summoned him and took him to Babylon, with the costly articles from the house of the LORD, and made Zedekiah, Jehoiakim's brother, king over Judah and Jerusalem. Zedekiah was twenty-one years old when he became king, and he reigned eleven years in Jerusalem. He did evil in the sight of the LORD his God, and did not humble himself before Jeremiah the prophet, who spoke from the mouth of the LORD. And he also rebelled against King Nebuchadnezzar, who had made him swear an oath by God; but he stiffened his neck and hardened his heart against turning to the LORD God of Israel. Moreover all the leaders of the priests and the people transgressed more and more, according to all the abominations of the nations, and defiled the house of the LORD which He had consecrated in Jerusalem. And the LORD God of their fathers sent warnings to them by His messengers, rising up early and sending them, because He had compassion on His people and on His dwelling place.But they mocked the messengers of God, despised His words, and scoffed at His prophets, until the wrath of the LORD arose against His people, till there was no remedy. Therefore He brought against them the king of the Chaldeans, who killed their young men with the sword in the house of their sanctuary, and had no compassion on young man or virgin, on the aged or the weak; He gave them all into his hand. And all the articles from the house of God, great and small, the treasures of the house of the LORD, and the treasures of the king and of his leaders, all these he took to Babylon. Then they burned the house of God, broke down the wall of Jerusalem, burned all its palaces with fire, and destroyed all its precious possessions. And those who escaped from the sword he carried away to Babylon, where they became servants to him and his sons until the rule of the kingdom of Persia, to fulfill the word of the LORD by the mouth of Jeremiah, until the land had enjoyed her Sabbaths. As long as she lay desolate she kept Sabbath, to fulfill seventy years. Now in the first year of Cyrus king of Persia, that the word of the LORD by the mouth of Jeremiah might be fulfilled, the LORD stirred up the spirit of Cyrus king of Persia, so that he made a proclamation throughout all his kingdom, and also put it in writing, saying, Thus says Cyrus king of Persia: All the kingdoms of the earth the LORD God of heaven has given me. And He has commanded me to build Him a house at Jerusalem which is in Judah. Who is among you of all His people? May the LORD his God be with him, and let him go up! (2 Chronicles 36)
Jeremiah and the last king, Zedekiah
The word which came to Jeremiah from the LORD when King Zedekiah sent to him Pashhur the son of Melchiah, and Zephaniah the son of Maaseiah, the priest, saying, "Please inquire of the LORD for us, for Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon makes war against us. Perhaps the LORD will deal with us according to all His wonderful works, that the king may go away from us." Then Jeremiah said to them, "Thus you shall say to Zedekiah, 'Thus says the LORD God of Israel: "Behold, I will turn back the weapons of war that are in your hands, with which you fight against the king of Babylon and the Chaldeans who besiege you outside the walls; and I will assemble them in the midst of this city. "I Myself will fight against you with an outstretched hand and with a strong arm, even in anger and fury and great wrath. "I will strike the inhabitants of this city, both man and beast; they shall die of a great pestilence. "And afterward," says the LORD, "I will deliver Zedekiah king of Judah, his servants and the people, and such as are left in this city from the pestilence and the sword and the famine, into the hand of Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon, into the hand of their enemies, and into the hand of those who seek their life; and he shall strike them with the edge of the sword. He shall not spare them, or have pity or mercy."'
"Now you shall say to this people, 'Thus says the LORD: "Behold, I set before you the way of life and the way of death. "He who remains in this city shall die by the sword, by famine, and by pestilence; but he who goes out and defects to the Chaldeans who besiege you, he shall live, and his life shall be as a prize to him. "For I have set My face against this city for adversity and not for good," says the LORD. "It shall be given into the hand of the king of Babylon, and he shall burn it with fire."' "And concerning the house of the king of Judah, say, 'Hear the word of the LORD, 'O house of David! Thus says the LORD: "Execute judgment in the morning; And deliver him who is plundered Out of the hand of the oppressor, Lest My fury go forth like fire And burn so that no one can quench it, Because of the evil of your doings. "Behold, I am against you, O inhabitant of the valley, And rock of the plain," says the LORD, "Who say, 'Who shall come down against us? Or who shall enter our dwellings?' But I will punish you according to the fruit of your doings," says the LORD; "I will kindle a fire in its forest, And it shall devour all things around it."'"
Thus says the LORD: "Go down to the house of the king of Judah, and there speak this word, "and say, 'Hear the word of the LORD, O king of Judah, you who sit on the throne of David, you and your servants and your people who enter these gates! 'Thus says the LORD: "Execute judgment and righteousness, and deliver the plundered out of the hand of the oppressor. Do no wrong and do no violence to the stranger, the fatherless, or the widow, nor shed innocent blood in this place. "For if you indeed do this thing, then shall enter the gates of this house, riding on horses and in chariots, accompanied by servants and people, kings who sit on the throne of David. "But if you will not hear these words, I swear by Myself," says the LORD, "that this house shall become a desolation."'" For thus says the LORD to the house of the king of Judah: "You are Gilead to Me, The head of Lebanon; Yet I surely will make you a wilderness, Cities which are not inhabited. I will prepare destroyers against you, Everyone with his weapons; They shall cut down your choice cedars And cast them into the fire. "And many nations will pass by this city; and everyone will say to his neighbor, 'Why has the LORD done so to this great city?' "Then they will answer, 'Because they have forsaken the covenant of the LORD their God, and worshiped other gods and served them.'"
Jeremiah and Shallum (Jehoahaz)
Weep not for the dead, nor bemoan him; Weep bitterly for him who goes away, For he shall return no more, Nor see his native country. For thus says the LORD concerning Shallum (Jehoahaz) the son of Josiah, king of Judah, who reigned instead of Josiah his father, who went from this place: "He shall not return here anymore, "but he shall die in the place where they have led him captive, (Egypt) and shall see this land no more.
Jeremiah and Jehoiakim
"Woe to him who builds his house by unrighteousness And his chambers by injustice, Who uses his neighbor's service without wages And gives him nothing for his work, Who says, 'I will build myself a wide house with spacious chambers, And cut out windows for it, Paneling it with cedar And painting it with vermilion.' "Shall you reign because you enclose yourself in cedar? Did not your father eat and drink, And do justice and righteousness? Then it was well with him. He judged the cause of the poor and needy; Then it was well. Was not this knowing Me?" says the LORD. "Yet your eyes and your heart are for nothing but your covetousness, For shedding innocent blood, And practicing oppression and violence." Therefore thus says the LORD concerning Jehoiakim the son of Josiah, king of Judah: "They shall not lament for him, Saying, 'Alas, my brother!' or 'Alas, my sister!' They shall not lament for him, Saying, 'Alas, master!' or 'Alas, his glory!' He shall be buried with the burial of a donkey, Dragged and cast out beyond the gates of Jerusalem.
Jeremiah and Jehoichin (Coniah)
"Go up to Lebanon, and cry out, And lift up your voice in Bashan; Cry from Abarim, For all your lovers are destroyed. I spoke to you in your prosperity, But you said, 'I will not hear.' This has been your manner from your youth, That you did not obey My voice. The wind shall eat up all your rulers, And your lovers shall go into captivity; Surely then you will be ashamed and humiliated For all your wickedness. O inhabitant of Lebanon, Making your nest in the cedars, How gracious will you be when pangs come upon you, Like the pain of a woman in labor? "As I live," says the LORD, "though Coniah the son of Jehoiakim, king of Judah, were the signet on My right hand, yet I would pluck you off; "and I will give you into the hand of those who seek your life, and into the hand of those whose face you fear--the hand of Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon and the hand of the Chaldeans. "So I will cast you out, and your mother who bore you, into another country where you were not born; and there you shall die. "But to the land to which they desire to return, there they shall not return. "Is this man Coniah a despised, broken idol-- A vessel in which is no pleasure? Why are they cast out, he and his descendants, And cast into a land which they do not know? O earth, earth, earth, Hear the word of the LORD! Thus says the LORD: 'Write this man down as childless, A man who shall not prosper in his days; For none of his descendants shall prosper, Sitting on the throne of David, And ruling anymore in Judah.'"
Jeremiah and the coming Messiah:
"Woe to the shepherds who destroy and scatter the sheep of My pasture!" says the LORD. Therefore thus says the LORD God of Israel against the shepherds who feed My people: "You have scattered My flock, driven them away, and not attended to them. Behold, I will attend to you for the evil of your doings," says the LORD.
"But I will gather the remnant of My flock out of all countries where I have driven them, and bring them back to their folds; and they shall be fruitful and increase. "I will set up shepherds over them who will feed them; and they shall fear no more, nor be dismayed, nor shall they be lacking," says the LORD.
"Behold, the days are coming," says the LORD, "That I will raise to David a Branch of righteousness; A King shall reign and prosper, And execute judgment and righteousness in the earth. In His days Judah will be saved, And Israel will dwell safely; Now this is His name by which He will be called:
THE LORD OUR RIGHTEOUSNESS.
"Therefore, behold, the days are coming," says the LORD, "that they shall no longer say, 'As the LORD lives who brought up the children of Israel from the land of Egypt,' "but, 'As the LORD lives who brought up and led the descendants of the house of Israel from the north country and from all the countries where I had driven them.' And they shall dwell in their own land."
From 2 Kings
1 Manasseh was twelve years old when he became king, and he reigned fifty-five years in Jerusalem. His mother's name was Hephzibah. 2 And he did evil in the sight of the LORD, according to the abominations of the nations whom the LORD had cast out before the children of Israel. 3 For he rebuilt the high places which Hezekiah his father had destroyed; he raised up altars for Baal, and made a wooden image, as Ahab king of Israel had done; and he worshiped all the host of heaven and served them. 4 He also built altars in the house of the LORD, of which the LORD had said, 'In Jerusalem I will put My name.' 5 And he built altars for all the host of heaven in the two courts of the house of the LORD. 6 Also he made his son pass through the fire, practiced soothsaying, used witchcraft, and consulted spiritists and mediums. He did much evil in the sight of the LORD, to provoke Him to anger. 7 He even set a carved image of Asherah that he had made, in the house of which the LORD had said to David and to Solomon his son, 'In this house and in Jerusalem, which I have chosen out of all the tribes of Israel, I will put My name forever; 8 'and I will not make the feet of Israel wander anymore from the land which I gave their fathers--only if they are careful to do according to all that I have commanded them, and according to all the law that My servant Moses commanded them.' 9 But they paid no attention, and Manasseh seduced them to do more evil than the nations whom the LORD had destroyed before the children of Israel. 10 And the LORD spoke by His servants the prophets, saying, 11 'Because Manasseh king of Judah has done these abominations (he has acted more wickedly than all the Amorites who were before him, and has also made Judah sin with his idols), 12 'therefore thus says the LORD God of Israel: 'Behold, I am bringing such calamity upon Jerusalem and Judah, that whoever hears of it, both his ears will tingle. 13 'And I will stretch over Jerusalem the measuring line of Samaria and the plummet of the house of Ahab; I will wipe Jerusalem as one wipes a dish, wiping it and turning it upside down. 14 'So I will forsake the remnant of My inheritance and deliver them into the hand of their enemies; and they shall become victims of plunder to all their enemies, 15 'because they have done evil in My sight, and have provoked Me to anger since the day their fathers came out of Egypt, even to this day.' 16 Moreover Manasseh shed very much innocent blood, till he had filled Jerusalem from one end to another, besides his sin by which he made Judah sin, in doing evil in the sight of the LORD. 17 Now the rest of the acts of Manasseh--all that he did, and the sin that he committed--are they not written in the book of the chronicles of the kings of Judah? 18 So Manasseh rested with his fathers, and was buried in the garden of his own house, in the garden of Uzza. Then his son Amon reigned in his place. (2 Kings 21)
From 2 Chronicles
1 Manasseh was twelve years old when he became king, and he
reigned fifty-five years in Jerusalem. 2 But he did evil in the
sight of the LORD, according to the abominations of the nations
whom the LORD had cast out before the children of Israel. 3 For
he rebuilt the high places which Hezekiah his father had broken
down; he raised up altars for the Baals, and made wooden images;
and he worshiped all the host of heaven and served them. 4 He
also built altars in the house of the LORD, of which the LORD
had said, 'In Jerusalem shall My name be forever.' 5 And he built
altars for all the host of heaven in the two courts of the house
of the LORD. 6 Also he caused his sons to pass through the fire
in the Valley of the Son of Hinnom; he practiced soothsaying,
used witchcraft and sorcery, and consulted mediums and spiritists.
He did much evil in the sight of the LORD, to provoke Him to
anger. 7 He even set a carved image, the idol which he had made,
in the house of God, of which God had said to David and to Solomon
his son, 'In this house and in Jerusalem, which I have chosen
out of all the tribes of Israel, I will put My name forever;
8 'and I will not again remove the foot of Israel from the land
which I have appointed for your fathers--only if they are careful
to do all that I have commanded them, according to the whole
law and the statutes and the ordinances by the hand of Moses.'
9 So Manasseh seduced Judah and the inhabitants of Jerusalem
to do more evil than the nations whom the LORD had destroyed
before the children of Israel. 10 And the LORD spoke to Manasseh
and his people, but they would not listen. 11 Therefore the LORD
brought upon them the captains of the army of the king of Assyria,
who took Manasseh with hooks, bound him with bronze fetters,
and carried him off to Babylon. 12 Now when he was in affliction,
he implored the LORD his God, and humbled himself greatly before
the God of his fathers, 13 and prayed to Him; and He received
his entreaty, heard his supplication, and brought him back to
Jerusalem into his kingdom. Then Manasseh knew that the LORD
was God. 14 After this he built a wall outside the City of David
on the west side of Gihon, in the valley, as far as the entrance
of the Fish Gate; and it enclosed Ophel, and he raised it to
a very great height. Then he put military captains in all the
fortified cities of Judah. 15 He took away the foreign gods and
the idol from the house of the LORD, and all the altars that
he had built in the mount of the house of the LORD and in Jerusalem;
and he cast them out of the city. 16 He also repaired the altar
of the LORD, sacrificed peace offerings and thank offerings on
it, and commanded Judah to serve the LORD God of Israel. 17 Nevertheless
the people still sacrificed on the high places, but only to the
LORD their God. 18 Now the rest of the acts of Manasseh, his
prayer to his God, and the words of the seers who spoke to him
in the name of the LORD God of Israel, indeed they are written
in the book of the kings of Israel. 19 Also his prayer and how
God received his entreaty, and all his sin and trespass, and
the sites where he built high places and set up wooden images
and carved images, before he was humbled, indeed they are written
among the sayings of Hozai. 20 So Manasseh rested with his fathers,
and they buried him in his own house. Then his son Amon reigned
in his place. (2 Chronicles 33:1-20)
Class notes and MP3 audio of this class are on Internet: http://ldolphin.org/ezekiel.
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