It is assumed that the foregoing scientific report has been read through, or at the least its Appendix I, the non-technical summary. The following pages are meant to trace through some fascinating possibilities that the foregoing results open up for serious students of the Scriptures. It will at once be apparent from the report or its Appendix that science has used atomic time as its measure of the age of the universe, the stars, the rocks and the earth. However, the report has shown that the atomic clock was ticking progressively more and more quickly the further back into the past we go. The consistent time-piece of the dynamical clock, by which we are all accustomed to measure time, ran at a constant rate irrespective of what the speed of light, c, or the atomic clock was doing. Consequently, atomic clocks register a systematically old date against dynamical time.
However, theory has shown the exact relationship between atomic and dynamical time. This relationship is exhibited by the behavior of the speed of light, c. The theoretically predicted curve fits the c data well, as does its close approximation, a polynomial curve. They allow an actual date to be obtained in dynamical time for events important to geology and astronomy that were registered by any form of atomic clock (see Figure 1). For simplicity in our calculations, we will use the polynomial curve approximation in this Supplement rather than the actual exponentially damped sinusoid. Nonetheless, both give similar results. The atomic dates of geology and astronomy are of considerable importance when compared with the dynamical dates in the Bible. However, it is first necessary to briefly examine a means whereby a more or less exact date in dynamical time can be obtained for Scriptural events.
Every 7 years was to be a Sabbath for Israel. The land rested, all slaves were freed, debts were cancelled and the Pentateuch read. For details, see Deut. 15. and Lev. 25:1-7. Every 49 years the Jubilee was celebrated from the Day of Atonement until the same feast in the 50th year (see Lev. 25:8-55).
It is possible to trace these years in Israel's history1. Jewish writings note that the Sabbatic Year occurred in 163/162 BC., 135/134 BC., 37/36 BC., 41/42 AD., 55/56 AD., 132/133 AD., 237/238 AD., 531/532 AD., and on through to the time of that great Jewish scholar Maimonides in 1196/7 AD. From these figures it can be noted that 701 BC. was a Jubilee in Hezekiah's time (Is. 37:30), and was the 15th Jubilee after Israel's entry into the Promised Land. It is just 77 times 7 years earlier than the Day of Atonement in 162 BC. If this date is in error, the true date can only be 7 or 14 years above or below 701 BC. Other values are unlikely on this data when combined with archeology. All dates below are subject to this error margin of ± 14 years. However, historical evidence seems to support this basic date.
The Zondervan Bible Encyclopaedia's historians agree with the 701 BC. date from consideration of a monument commemorating the exploits of Sennacharib who came against Hezekiah that year. It also fits well with other data. Note that Sennacharib invaded Judah on an earlier occasion as leader of his father Sargon's armies and sent Rabshakeh to capture the capital, Jerusalem. However, news of Ethiopian armies coming to attack him caused his action to cease. That was 713/712 BC. When he returned in 701 BC. an angel smote the army with plague. The two accounts are run together in 2 Ki. 18-19, 2 Chr. 32 and Is. 36-37. A close examination of these passages shows that the Jubilee was associated with Sennacharib's second visit. The illness of Hezekiah and his miraculous recovery were linked with the first.
These figures provide us with an absolute chronology for the Bible. One proviso is needed, however. Although dates down to the time of Abraham were the same, figures differ for times earlier than that in the various manuscripts on which our Bible is based. All modern Bibles basically follow the Massoretic text for the Old Testament. However, the source of the Massoretic Hebrew text dates from 350 years later2 than the sources of the Samaritan Pentateuch and the Septuagint translation. The Samaritan dates3 from 408 BC. and was basically the text used in the days of Ezra and Nehemiah. The Massoretic text differs from this original for several reasons. One is that the original was written in old Hebrew, before the square Assyrian characters typical of the Massoretic and modern Hebrew came into favor. The transition from the old to the square characters could easily be4 'one considerable source of error and corruption.' Furthermore, after the square characters were used, a later change put in vowel points which permitted further errors.
The Samaritan Pentateuch and the Septuagint were both based on the old Hebrew original. The Septuagint is a Jewish translation of that original into Greek. The Samaritan is an old Hebrew copy taken from Jerusalem when the Jews wisely rejected Samaritan help in rebuilding the Temple. A Samaritan temple resulted. There is no evidence that these versions were corrected from each other5 so they form independent links with the original. This is of particular importance in the case of Genesis whose dates concern us here. The Samaritan and Massoretic texts differ as to the ages of the patriarchs in Genesis 5 and 11, and the Septuagint usually supports the Samaritan6. There are a number of interesting problems posed by the Massoretic text which are beautifully overcome by the Septuagint (or LXX) and Samaritan.
One relevant instance is Exodus 12:40-41 which indicates the children of Israel were in Egypt for 430 years. Galatians 3:17, however, says that the Law was given at Sinai, following the Exodus, just 430 years after the Promise was given to Abraham when he was 75 (Gen. 12:1-9). Which form of dating is to be followed? Both the Samaritan and the Septuagint agree with Paul's interpretation in Galatians7. The Massoretic text has accidentally omitted the capitalized words in the quote7 from Exodus 12:40 'And the sojourning of the children of Israel which they sojourned in the land of Egypt AND THE LAND OF CANAAN was 430 years....'
New Testament authorities, including Jesus and Paul, quote the Septuagint version almost exclusively. This results in some New Testament quotations from the Old Testament which do not appear in our Old Testaments. An important case in point is that of Deut. 32:43 quoted in Hebrews 1:6. Paul's writings and his Septuagint Old Testament quotations occupy a prominent place in the New Testament. When it is realized that he received his theological training from the widely respected Gamaliel, it becomes apparent that the Septuagint was the principle text used by Jewry at that time. Furthermore, the church fathers used it until the time of Origen who 'doctored' the text to suit the Massoretic8 which had recently emerged as the dominant version. As a consequence, it seems important to consider the Septuagint as a basis for dating. This is more particularly the case for Genesis as most authorities acknowledge that the Septuagint Pentateuch was carefully translated.
IMPORTANT BIBLICAL DATES:-
With 701 BC. as the 15th Jubilee since Israel entered the Promised Land,
the following dates can be established:
Entry into Canaan, Passover 1436 BC. Exodus from Egypt, Passover 1476 BC. From 1 Ki. 6:1 it follows that the Temple construction commenced in 996 BC. and the death of Solomon and the division of the kingdom occurred in 960 BC. Solomon's crowning as king the first time (when David was still alive 1 Ki. 1:43) thus occurred in 1000 BC. exactly. A very convenient date to recall.
From the above facts, it follows that Abraham was 75 years old, just 430 years before the Exodus, in 1906 BC. Abraham was thus born in 1981 BC. Genesis 21:5 gives Isaac's birth as 1881 BC., and Gen. 25:26 gives Jacob's as 1821 BC. Jacob appeared before Pharaoh in 1691 BC. (Gen. 47:9) when Joseph was 39/40 (Gen. 41:46, 45:11) which gives Joseph's birth as 1730 BC. The death of Jacob occurred in 1674 BC., while Joseph's death came in 1620 BC. From the Exodus date, Moses was born in 1556 BC. (Ex. 7:7) and fled into the desert in 1516 BC. The accompanying Table 1 supplies further details.
THE FLOOD AND THE PELEG DIVISION:-
The patriarchs' ages at the birth of their favored son is noted in Gen. 5 and 11. From this data, the Flood dates as 3053 BC. with Creation at 5315 BC. in the Septuagint, with the Masoretic text giving 2333 BC. and 3989 BC. respectively. The Dodwell axis tilt from asteroidal impact in 2345 ± 5 BC. thus gives the date of the Flood astronomically on the Massoretic text. If the Septuagint is followed, this date marks the separation of continents after the Flood in the days of Peleg (Gen. 10:25) when 'the earth was divided'. This Biblical quote caused Snider to pioneer the continental drift idea9, including maps showing the now separated Africa and America as originally one.
On examining this quote several facts emerge. Firstly, the statement that the earth was divided 'in the days of Peleg' gives strong support to Septuagint chronology. All the Flood and post-Flood Patriarchs had died or were close to death by Peleg's time according to that version. On the Massoretic text, it could equally be said that the division occurred in the days of Noah, Shem, Arphaxad, Salah and Eber. The statement thus loses its significance in the Massoretic version. Furthermore, Patriarchal longevity figures form a smooth sequence on the Septuagint with two dramatic drops, one at the Flood, the other from the days of Peleg. The sequence is more erratic on the Massoretic text so that mathematically the LXX version is favored. In addition, the effects on Patriarchal lifespans of the 'division', whatever it was, is really apparent in the Septuagint which thus points to two key events.
-:COMPARISON OF MASSORETIC AND SEPTUAGINT CHRONOLOGIES:-
|PATRIARCH||AGE @ BIRTH
|CREATION||0||Adam||0||3989 BC.||5315||YEARS||(DATES BC.)||YEARS||(DATES BC.)|
|Adam||130||Seth||230||3859 BC.||5085||930||(3989 - 3059)||930||(5315 - 4385)|
|Seth||105||Enos||205||3754 BC.||4880||912||(3859 - 2947)||912||(5085 - 4173)|
|Enos||90||Cainaan||190||3664 BC.||4690||905||(3754 - 2849)||905||(4880 - 3975)|
|Cainaan||70||Mahaleel||170||3594 BC.||4520||910||(3664 - 2754)||910||(4690 -3780)|
|Mahalaleel||65||Jared||165||3529 BC.||4355||895||(3594 - 2699)||895||(4520 -3625)|
|Jared||162||Enoch||162||3367 BC.||4193||962||(3529 - 2567)||962||(4355 - 3393)|
|Enoch||65||Methusalah||165||3302 BC.||4028||365||(3367 - 3002)||365||(4193 -3828)|
|Methusalah||187||Lamech||187||3115 BC.||3841||969||(3302 - 2333)||969||(4028- 3059)|
|Lamech||182||Noah||188||2933 BC.||3653||777||(3115 - 2338)||753||(3841 - 3088)|
|Noah||502||Shem||502||2431 BC.||3151||950||(2933 - 1983)||950||(3653 - 2703)|
|FLOOD||WHEN NOAH WAS 600||-||-||2333 BC.||3053|
|Shem||100||Arphaxad||100||2331 BC.||3051||600||(2431 - 1831)||600||(3151 - 2551)|
|Arphaxad||35||-||135||2296 BC.||2916||438||(2331 - 1893)||565||(3051 - 2486)|
|Cainaan||-||Salah||130||-||2786||-||-||460||(2916 - 2456)|
|Salah||30||Eber||130||2266 BC.||2656||433||(2296 - 1863)||460||(2786 - 2326)|
|Eber||34||Peleg||134||2232 BC.||2522||464||(2266 - 1802)||504||(2656 - 2152)|
|Peleg||30||Reu||130||2202 BC.||2392||239||(2232 - 1993)||339||(2522 - 2125)|
|Reu||32||Serug||132||2170 BC.||2260||239||(2202 - 1963)||339||(2392 - 2053)|
|Serug||30||Nahor||130||2140 BC.||2130||230||(2170 - 1940)||330||(2260 - 1930)|
|Nahor||29||Terah||79||2111 BC.||2051||148||(2140 - 1992)||208||(2130 - 1922)|
|Terah||130||Abraham||70||1981 BC.||1981||205||(2111 - 1906)||145||(2051 - 1906)|
|Abraham||100||Issac||100||1881 BC.||1881||175||(1981 - 1806)||175||(1981 - 1806)|
|Issac||60||Jacob||60||1821 BC.||1821||180||(1881 - 1701)||180||(1881 - 1701)|
|Jacob||130||IN EGYPT||130||1691 BC.||1691||147||(1821 - 1674)||147||(1821 -1674)|
EXODUS = ABRAHAM 75 - 430 YEARS 1476 BC.
TEMPLE = EXODUS - 480 YEARS 996 BC.
Further study of the Peleg quote reveals that the word 'earth' is used in Gen. 1:1, and that for 'division' differs from the Babel incident division. The word 'Peleg' itself means 'earthquake', 'division', 'channel of water'. It is also the root word for Pelagos, which was the old Grecian term for the Mediterranean, and for the 'pelagic' or upper ocean region in geology. The name of Peleg's brother was 'Joktan' which means to 'cut off', 'make small', 'kill', 'destroy', to 'diminish' or to 'tear off'. A tearing off of America from Africa in a great earthquake with a channel of water between thus seems to be implied Scripturally. As c decay gives a valid mechanism and date for the Flood of about 3000 BC., the asteroidal impact causing continental division is favored. This is also supported by geological evidence which thus endorses the Septuagint dating. The details of these events will be examined shortly.
However, some pertinent geological facts must first be considered. It is apparent from Fig. 3 that two major periods of extinction of fossil species occurred at about 250 and 70 million years ago on the atomic clock10. The actual dynamical time for these events is given by the c decay curve. Associated with both events in the geological column was coal formation and glacial activity. Two catastrophic events are thus in view. Further, the event that culminated about 250 million years ago atomically was associated with mountain building in western Europe, Scandinavia and the eastern USA11 and called the Hercynian, Caledonian and Appalachian orogenies respectively. The cause may thus lie between Europe and America. By contrast, the more recent event upthrust huge mountain ranges in the circum-Pacific and associated regions11, which may place the occurrence of the prime cause in that general area. The first catastrophe resulted in some relatively simple folding, generally12. The second event gave more complex results12, but with fewer extinctions.
Figure 3 also introduces us to the fact that these two events allow us to distinguish three major divisions of geological time that are related to life forms. The so-called Palaeozoic or ancient life is the oldest. This Era was closed by the first catastrophe about 250 million years ago atomically. The Mesozoic or 'middle life' Era which followed was closed by the second catastrophe which led the way to the Cenozoic or so-called recent life Era. Each of these Eras possessed dominant life forms that are characteristic. All the other forms seem to have been suppressed by the prevailing conditions. Figure 3 points out the remarkable fact that reptiles were dominant in the Mesozoic and mammals in the Cenozoic. Furthermore, spore-bearing plants were the dominant types in the Palaeozoic, with the naked seed plants (gymnosperms) in the majority in the Mesozoic. The angiosperms or hard-shelled seeds with flowers and fruit have the ascendancy today. These facts of geology need to be explained, and some interesting possibilities are explored below. It must be emphasized that a lot of what follows are initial results that still need to be filled out in scientific detail. However, the major outlines seem clear.
A MECHANISM FOR NOAH'S FLOOD:-
The c decay curves indicate that rapid radioactive heating of the cool interior of the earth occurred immediately following the Creation Event (which science calls the Big Bang). Two effects of importance would accrue as a result. Firstly, meteorites indicate that the material comprising the earth's interior contained water in one form or another up to 19%. As a consequence of rapid internal heating, massive quantities of water would be sent towards the crust after the Creation Event. Springs and geysers would plentifully water the earth. It is for this reason that rain was not needed before the Flood. The Septuagint text actually states in Gen. 2:6 that it was 'fountains' that watered the earth. Furthermore, geysers also supplied warm water to the relatively shallow ocean basins. The Scripture seems to imply that there was one main landmass surrounded with this warm ocean.
However, continued heating made the earth's interior more active geologically and trapped increasing quantities of water under the crust. As the interior of the earth (the mantle) heated up it expanded placing increasing pressure on the crust. Eventually, about 3000 BC., the pressure became so high that the crust split at what is now the mid-ocean ridges13. Because of our equatorial bulge, the greatest strain was east-west which means that the initial split was mainly north-south. The split would travel at just under the speed of sound in rock or 3 miles per second. As a consequence it would travel completely around the earth in about 2 hours13.
The pressure of the overlying crust allowed the 'fountains of the deep' to burst forth in a massive explosive episode. This pressure caused water, steam and sediments to be lofted to heights of 20 Km. Some, super-cooled, would fall as ice. The energy from the jet at any point in this world-encircling crack has been calculated as being equivalent to 10,000 volcanoes like that of Krakatoa13. The quantity of water released in this episode of catastrophic degassing from the interior would be about half that in the oceans today. Not only would there be steam and water, with sediments chewed out from the enlarging crack, there would also be magmas, volcanic activity, crustal warping and submarine mudflows. The ejected subcrustal waters would also be rich in chemicals such as carbon dioxide and massive limestone deposits would be expected. This event occurred about 3000 BC. on the initial calculations, and thus corresponds to Noah's Flood in the Septuagint version.
A MECHANISM FOR CONTINENTAL DIVISION:-
Observations of the earth's axis tilt over 4000 years have been compiled by G. Dodwell, the late Government Astronomer for South Australia. The graph in Figure 2 shows the axis tilt vertically and time horizontally. The curve of the 66 observations diverges one-sidedly by increasing amounts from the predicted line (top) as we go back in time. The observations have a built-in cross-check as they supply latitude measurements to the same accuracy as the axis tilt. The divergence is thus shown to be a very real effect. The curve fitting these observations is the same as that of a top or gyroscope returning to a new position of balance after being pushed over. The dramatic change in axis tilt occurred in 2345 BC., the date the curve became vertical. At that date the axis tilt swung over to about 27 degrees from a previously more upright position, then gradually recovered to the 23.5 degrees of today.
CLICK HERE TO SEE FIGURE I
CLICK HERE TO SEE FIGURE II
The implication is that the earth, acting like a top or gyrostat, received a massive impact from an asteroidal body and heeled over. The core moved in the opposite direction to maintain angular momentum and assisted the precession in returning the axis tilt to an equilibrium position. The impact itself set up a ripple structure in the crust and mantle as well as tilting the Earth's axis. Radial and tangential fault systems on an immense scale would occur. Similar structures resulting from impact are obvious on the moon. These lunar examples show circular blocks of the crust 700 miles across that have sunken down 2 miles on the tangential fault system. On earth, a tremendous amount of buckling, cracking and brecciation occurred and the tearing apart of Africa and America to give the division of continents mentioned as happening in the days of Peleg (Gen. 10:25).
This tearing apart occurred along the lines of weakness existing from the Flood. The most prominent of these was the world encircling mid-ocean ridge. The continents of Africa and America would thus be expected to have pulled straight out from the base of the ridge, not the center. In that position the fit of the jigsaw is far superior to the usual Bullard fit13. The continents have thus not moved as far as generally supposed. Furthermore, the faulting across the ridge, when viewed on a globe, is seen to form two series. One is radial to the Pacific, where the impact occurred, the other is radial to the antipodal point in the Mid-East/Africa region. In addition, it has been pointed out by Dr. W.T. Brown that the magnetic stripe pattern is not so much parallel to the center of the ridge, but rather has been demonstrated to be perpendicular to the fault lines caused by the impact. That continental drift is occurring was evidenced by the abandonment of the Mohole Project off South America. Basal rock strata were drifting so quickly14 compared to the surface that the drill casing bowed making drilling impossible.
This impact cracked the crust and formed the continental plates which pulled apart under the strain of the explosion. The immense amounts of water and gases in the magma under the crust made it of low viscosity. This effect was probably aided significantly by a higher value for c in a manner to be noted in the second report. The combined result would be to make the continental drift process much more rapid and efficient than usually conceded. A generally molten mantle would occur with release of crustal pressure at this time since radioactive heating had raised temperatures sufficiently by then. The viscosity factor would then be at an optimum with little friction. Tidal waves of the disrupted oceans would inundate low-lying coastlands. The sediments so formed in this event were deposited in hollows, injected with magmas, buckled etc. Volcanic activity would be widespread. The tangential fault system around the impact site in the Pacific went deep into the mantle and would allow the Pacific block to sink, displacing magma and obliterating the immediate crater. Exactly the same situation exists with Mare Imbrium on the moon. It is worthy of note that all the geological subduction zones are circum-Pacific. These zones mark the tangential faulting into the mantle.
The Dodwell date of 2345 BC. ± 5 years for this event is coincident with Peleg on the Septuagint chronology. This continental division occurred after the human race had dispersed from the Babel crisis, trapping them into their new environments, along with unique flora and fauna. At the end of the division there would be isostatic re-adjustment uplifting the mountain ranges eventually to their present heights. Following this major re-adjustment, it would seem that the activity tapered down to the present-day levels. In the meantime, a new climatic pattern would have asserted itself with severe winters and summers due to the more extreme axis tilt and high mountain ranges.
THE FLOOD AND PELEG DATED IN ATOMIC TIME:-
On this basis, therefore, there can be identified 5 major epochs from the Scripture and the Model presented above. Firstly, there is the Creation itself and the strata resulting from that event. Secondly, there was the period following the Fall to the onset of the Flood. The strata formed in this epoch would be in geologically active areas. One might expect that the gradual spread of plants and animals over the earth would leave but little evidence of life to begin with, but more as time went on in these active areas. Meantime, throughout the rest of the earth, ecosystems were gradually building up which eventually became inundated in the Flood and its attendant upheavals. Fourthly, there is the period when the earth was divided some 500 years after the Babel crisis. Ecosystems thus had about 700 years to form after the Flood before again being entombed if the Septuagint dating is correct. Finally there is the period from nearer the time of Abraham when the mountain building activity began to taper off. That some activity was still occurring then is evidenced by the behavior in the Jordan Rift that resulted in the Sodom firestorm. It might be expected that there would be many such post earth-division catastrophes around the world as well as other meteorite impacts of a lesser magnitude, for which there is evidence.
Now comes the surprise. The theoretically derived c decay curves give us atomic dates that correspond to these above events in dynamical time (see Fig.1). They approximate to events with some geological and astronomical significance. The dynamical date for Peleg's continental division is 2345 BC. It gives a date in atomic time of 71.6 million years ago. This corresponds to the close of the Mesozoic Era geologically. Noah's Flood dates about 3000 BC. in dynamical time. That gives an atomic date of 256 million years ago, which roughly corresponds to the close of the Paleozoic Era geologically. The best Septuagint chronology suggests 5315 BC. for the Creation date. This becomes 8 billion years ago in atomic time. An atomic date of 18 billion results from a dynamical date of 6000 BC. These latter figures are extreme limits in astronomy and Septuagint Scripture.
GEOLOGY AND GENESIS:-
In summary we may say that this scenario harmonizes the 5 main periods in both geology and Genesis. There is the firstly the AZOIC strata with no life. This strata resulted from the activity during the process of Creation . It dates atomically down to 3 or 4 billion years. The earliest date supplied by astronomy is about 10 (or perhaps 15) billion years. Dynamically this is about 5700 to 5300 BC. Secondly, there is the ARCHEOZOIC era with so-called primitive life. These were the areas of active deposition from Creation to the Flood. Atomically, they date from about 3 billion down to say 600 million years. Dynamically the dates range from about 5000 BC. to 3500 BC. when life had multiplied. Thirdly, there is the PALEOZOIC strata of so-called early life in which ecosystems built during this 2000 year interval were inundated, thus giving a range of dates. On the atomic clock the dates range from about 600 million years to the cutoff at roughly 250 million. On the dynamical clock this cutoff was Noah's Flood about 3000 BC. Fourthly, the MESOZOIC strata, or the record of so-called middle life, represents life forms and ecosystems built up during the 700 years from the Flood to the Peleg crisis. Again this will result in a range of dates. On the atomic clock the Mesozoic started about 250 million and ended about 70 million years ago. These dates dynamically are roughly 3000 BC. to 2345 BC. Finally there is the CENOZOIC or recent-life era from Peleg to the present ranging in age atomically from 70 million years down to zero. Consideration of these 5 divisions now follows in more detail which is also summarized in Figure 4. The full c decay curve in dynamical time (Fig. 1) also compares these divisions.
CLICK HERE TO SEE FIGURE III
CLICK HERE TO SEE FIGURE IV
THE AZOIC ERA:-
This Creation strata dates around 4 billion years atomically and astronomy may push this back to 10 billion or so. Dynamical dates range from 5300 BC. out to 5700 BC. or so. In the Creation process an initial degassing of the pre-Flood oceans occurred which precipitated thousands of meters thickness of clays and bedded ores. The process is similar to that proposed by Stanton15. The early ocean was continually fed by geysers whose source was the earth's interior. The land was uplifted on Day 3 basically as one continent surrounded by a relatively shallow and warm ocean by today's standards.
THE ARCHEOZOIC ERA:-
As the interior of the earth heated up due to radioactive processes following the immediate Creation event, intrusives into the region below the thick sedimentary cover on the surface would date radiometrically as successively younger and younger. Furthermore, the deposition of strata from areas still geologically active would continue. The water from the earth's interior could be chemically rich. No fossils would be expected in the regions immediately associated with Creation Week itself corresponding to the oldest radiometric dates. However, as plants and animals slowly spread over the earth in the active pre-Flood depositional areas covered by the Proterozoic, it may be expected that any geologic formation resulting from that time may incorporate firstly traces of algae, then spores and plants then animal activity. Thus the suspected worm-burrows found near Hopetoun in Western Australia in strata dating as 1340 million years come from around 5000 BC. and Burdick's find of fossil pollen in the Hakatai Shale can be accounted for. Remembering that the earth's interior would become increasingly active as the era progressed, also allows for intrusives to occur in non-depositional hot-spot areas which would eventually date radiometrically as Palaeozoic with local flora and fauna involved. However, local hot spots differ from a general mantle expansion that caused the split at the mid-ocean ridges.
The Palaeozoic Eva is the period of marine deposits. Strata testify that the earth was virtually covered with water. The earth's crust split at the mid-ocean ridges as the mantle expanded from rapid radioactive heating of the interior. About half the present ocean was expelled from the interior in this episode. Flora and faunal ecosystems built up for 2000 years were overwhelmed as the Flood progressed. Initially, simple bottom dwelling marine creatures (invertebrates) would be the first trapped by the submarine mudflows, magmas and precipitating limestones from carbon dioxide rich waters. Indeed, the Palaeozoic sequences on the Canadian Shield are almost entirely carbonate rocks with much spread across the USA down as far as the Grand Canyon16. This churning chemical mix would entomb the species.
As the process continued, the shallow water-dwellers near the shorelines would be the next layer in the fossil record. The larger free swimming creatures then shoreline plants and lifeforms would be next engulfed as the waters rose and the raining sediments were deposited over them and the chemical mix hardened around them. This is the record of the Silurian and Devonian. The violent turbulence of the flood waters would rip up the land plants and these vegetation mats would be buried to form coal in the igneous activity of the Carboniferous as the Flood waters returned off the newly upthrust land surfaces. The Devonian oscillation beds may indicate the quieting of the Flood.
In summary, the ascending order of fossils should read marine life, then shoreline, followed by land plants and animals. The geological column records this but it is looked upon as an evolutionary sequence rather than an ecological, environmental, mobility and turbidity current sorting sequence. Immense volcanic activity would occur and it is of interest to note that the vast majority of Palaeozoic volcanics were extruded underwater. The land uplifts, the darkened skies from the tectonic situation and the deposited ice all resulted in the evidence for glaciation in the southern hemisphere. At the same time, the collapse of any vapor canopy enhanced the great atmospheric changes which resulted in strong jet-stream winds that were mentioned in Genesis 8-1. At the surface, wind systems formed the immediate post-Flood aeolian deposits found in Permian and Triassic beds, the sand grains stained red by residual humidity from the Flood process. The Paleozoic Era closed about 3000 BC. dynamically or approximately 250 million years ago atomically.
THE MESOZOIC ERA:-
Following the Flood proper, the land forms would steadily rise with minor advances and retreats of oceans over a considerable time. This would give alternate marine and land sequences in early Mesozoic strata. Some areas would continue to be geologically active with deposition occuring for a considerable part of the Era and would be upthrust in the Dodwell impact, thus giving a range of dates. Low land forms with deserts, oases, lakes and river valleys would be typical of the Era. This 700 year period allowed land ecosystems as well as Mesozoic corals to build up on top of fossil rich marine Palaeozoic strata. Furthermore, the great aeolian sand dune deposits of the Mesozoic had time to form above these Palaeozoic sequences. It is impossible to explain these formations by the action of a single Flood over just one year.
The pre-Flood Palaeozoic Era seems to have been a warm, calm and very humid one from fossil and other considerations. The continual addition of steam and water from the fountains and geysers world-wide would ensure this. By contrast, the Mesozoic seems to have been drier, windier and hotter. The collapse of any canopy at the Flood would ensure this as would the increasing intensity of solar radiation from the c decay process. The pre-Flood humidity favored the spore-bearing plants and would suppress the other types. However, now the warmer, drier conditions would favor the gymnosperms. Cycads occur today in central Australian river valleys, and they flourished in the Mesozoic. A high value for c may also have favored the 'primitive' plants and suppressed the more efficient 'modern' plants in the Palaeozoic and early Mesozoic in a manner to be explored in the second report. Relative plant abundances in the different Eras are thereby readily explained.
Additionally, the uninhibited solar radiation and new conditions favored reptiles, allowing their extremely rapid development and they spread across the low land forms. Again, land reptilian ecosystems, of which there is plentiful evidence, had 700 years to form on top of marine Palaeozoic sediments. A higher value for c also seems to have increased longevity and favored giant reptiles and giant insects in a manner to be explored in the second report. The presence of these forms in the Mesozoic and their absence today may thus be accounted for, as may be the great ages of the early Patriarchs. During this period, world-wide human and animal migration occurred.
In 2345 BC. the Dodwell uplift recorded in Jurassic/Cretaceous strata occurred along with the division of the earth of Peleg's day. The great upthrusts and crustal warping following asteroidal impact allowed the sea to sweep in over the low land. The tidal waves would be accompanied by much volcanic activity. This gave rise to the Mesozoic coal deposits in a fashion similar to that of the Palaeozoic. The land plants and animals trapped and fossilized would reflect the changed weather conditions and new preponderances. It is worthy of note that much of the Mesozoic lavas were sub-aerial not sub-marine17. Consequently, a process different to a Flood is required. The object that impacted with the earth may have been associated with the breakup of the asteroidal planet. In any case, the last important crater on the moon, Tycho, was formed at this same time. It is becoming generally accepted that there is geological evidence for an asteroidal impact closing the Mesozoic era. Geology gives the date in atomic time while Dodwell gives the date dynamically.
THE CENOZOIC ERA:-
Following Mesozoic migration and continental separation, species were trapped and isolated in their new communities. The upthrusts and mountain elevation processes initiated by the asteroidal impact continued on. The new large axis tilt also assisted in giving another new weather pattern and culminated in the second record of glacial activity. These processes gradually died down to present levels. The ability of the mammals to maintain a stable body temperature despite wide temperature variations has favored their dominance in our yearly extremes of climate. As geological activity quieted, many local catastrophes would still have occurred such as at Sodom.
This Model thus accounts for the two main coal forming epochs, the two main glacial periods, the two main events in which species became extinct (see Fig. 3), and the two main times of mountain upthrusting. The second of these was the more efficient mountain builder due to a more fluid mantle and effects of continental drift and related tectonics. The formations were thus more complex, being also aided by the results of impact. The initial clues suggesting the foci of orogenic activity as the area between Europe and America (the mid-ocean ridge) in the first case, and the Pacific region in the second episode, were not so wide of the mark as might have been expected. In the case of the Flood, it suggests that the mid ocean ridge split began near Iceland and spread south. The split has left a ridge due to isostatic readjustment after massive removal of material from the crust in the event.
Several advantages also result in addition to those outlined above. It explains why the mammoths of Siberia, buried near the surface, virtually in situ, could be underlain by thousands of feet of sediments. If their demise was in the Flood, where were they during the its first few months when those sediments were being laid, and how did the buttercups found in their mouths have time to flourish? An exactly similar problem exists with the Paluxy Dinosaurs18. These Mesozoic prints overlie thousands of feet of Palaeozoic sediments. Their food supply and method of survival during the first few months of the Flood while surrounded with water is not a problem if they perished in the separate disaster of the Peleg continental division.
This problem with in situ fossils is repeated many times throughout the geological column. It cannot be explained by the ecological zoning argument, nor by the action of turbidity currents and sorting. In Europe18, eggs from dinosaurs, such as Protoceratops, are found in their nests. Other dinosaurs were entombed by wind-storms that built the Mesozoic desert dune systems19. In each case they lay on top of Palaeozoic sediments. These Mesozoic sands, such as the New Red Sandstone of England, and its counterparts across Europe, and the Dakota and Navajo sandstone of the USA are all of non-marine origin20. However, they all lie on top of the marine Palaeozoic sequences. Such wind-blown sand systems take some time to develop. So do the many coral deposits21 that overlie Palaeozoic strata22. This model allows these fossil species to develop in situ on top of existing sediments and then be preserved by a separate major (Scriptural) catastrophe.
On the other side of the ledger, the problem that American geology has with so-called 'overthrusts' with no evidence of rock scars and rubble, but based on 'wrong order fossils', has one possible solution on the above approach. It is noted that the majority of these 'overthrusts' involve Palaeozoic or earlier strata on top of the Mesozoic. It has been shown that with meteorite impact, part of the rim structure of the resulting basin is made up of strata that has been up-tilted and folded back on itself. If this happened in the Pacific Rim area of America at the close of the Mesozoic, then Palaeozoic strata would be upthrust and folded back over that which had been deposited during the 700 years of the Mesozoic Era. Erosion associated with the event would leave the remnants that are visible today. It is hoped to develop these sketches in more detail in the second report.
A SCRIPTURAL CONCLUSION:-
We have been discussing catastrophic events, a worldwide Flood, continental
division, the Sodom fire-storm. Each was declared by Scripture to be a
Judgement from the Almighty. Each has left its mark geologically. The Scriptures
also speak of a Coming Judgement in which 'every valley will be exalted
and every mountain and hill shall be made low' (Isaiah 40:4), 'and
there was a great earthquake, such as was not since men were upon the earth,
so mighty an earthquake and so great.... and every island fled away and
the mountains were not found. And there felt great stones out of the heavens...'
(Revelation 16:18, 20, 21). Speaking of this period, Jesus said, 'For
then shall be great tribulation, such as was not since the beginning of
the world to this time, no, nor ever shall be. And except those days should
be shortened, there should no flesh be saved...' (Matthew 24:21-22).
Daniel (12:1, 9:27), Jeremiah (30:7, 4:23-28), Ezekiel (38,39) and John
(Revelation 7-19) also foretold of events in that period. If all these
prophecies are taken at face value, events then will inevitably leave their
mark geologically. As to their timing, Jesus placed them during the generation
that saw the old city of Jerusalem restored to Jewish control, with the
entire judgement process (or 'tribulation') ending at Messiah's return
to rule the whole earth (Luke 21:24-36). This places our current generation
in a position similar to the immediate pre-Flood days of Noah. That generation
rejected Noah's warning to repent, get right with their Creator and enter
the Ark. Instead they chose to perish in the cataclysm. Our time could
also be short. We each should heed Noah's plea to turn to righteousness
(2 Peter 2:5) and be saved, or perish. It is our privilege to make that
choice while there is yet time.
1. G.F. Spall, 'Sabbatic Years', The Vineyard, Vol. 27, No. 9, pp.2-4, October 1985. Also, Queensland Supplement to The Vineyard, March '85.
2. Sir Frederic Kenyon, 'Our Bible And The Ancient Manuscripts', p.91, Eyre and Spottiswoode, London.
3. F. Kenyon, op. cit., p.49.
4. Ibid., p.49
5. Ibid., p.91-92.
6. Ibid., p.50-51, 91-92.
7. H.H. Halley, 'Halley's Bible Handbook', 24th Edition, 6th printing, p.33, 1968. Also, 'The Septuagint Greek and English', Ex. 12:40. Also F. Kenyon, op. cit., p.51.
8. F. Kenyon, op. cit., p.58-59.
9. Antonio Snider, 'La Creation et ses Mysteres devoiles', Paris, 1858.
10. Plant and vertebrate data from W.T. Keeton, 'Biological Science', 2nd edition, pp.748-762 811, W.W. Norton and Co., New York, 1972. Fish data from F.D. Ommanney, 'The Fishes', p.68-69, Time-Life, 1964. Reptile data from A.Carr, 'The Reptiles', pp.44-45, Time-Life, 1964. Invertebrate data from J.K. Anderson and H.G. Coffin, 'Fossils in Focus', p.35, Zondervan, 1980.
11. A. Holmes, 'Principles of Physical Geology', pp.108-109, Nelson and sons London, 1959.
12. C.O. Dunbar and J. Rodgers, 'Principles of Stratigraphy', p.311, Wiley, New York, 1958.
13. W.T. Brown Jr., invited paper 'The Fountains of the Great Deep', International Conference, August, 1986.
14. J.P. Dawson, 'I Am', 2nd edition, p.3-9, (recording a movement of 15 to 18 inches/year), Oklahoma Foundation for Research and Development, 1985.
15. R.L. Stanton, 'Proc. Aurtralas. Inst. Min. Metall.', No.282, pp.11-32, June, 1982
16. C.O. Dunbar, J. Rodgers, op. cit., p.236, 309-310.
17. S. Nevins, 'Speak to the Earth'(G.F.Howe), p.55, Presby. and Ref., 1975.
18. Ruth Moore, 'Evolution', p.120, Time-Life International, 1964.
19. F. Bourliere, 'Eurasia', p.12, Time-Life International, 1965.
20. C.O. Dunber, J. Rodgers, op. cit., p.22, 40, 65, 217, 295.
21. F. Bourliere, op. cit, pp.12-13.
22. S. Nevins, op. cit, p.55.
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