by Lambert Dolphin
The author's early career in science was concerned with ballistic missile defense, nuclear test effects on radio communication and radar, over-the-horizon detection of missile launches, and other aspects of upper atmospheric geophysics.
Then, in 1973 Prof. Luis Alvarez of the Physics Department at the University of California Berkeley (LBL) contacted me to tell me about cosmic ray experiments he was conducting in the Second Pyramid (that of Chephren, or Khafre) at Giza in Egypt. Alvarez hoped that counting enough cosmic rays and keeping track of their incoming direction would reveal the "shadow" cast by a possible hidden chamber in the pyramid. Chephren's pyramid had one main chamber at the base and the geometry was well suited for this experiment. After many months of counting cosmic rays that had passed through the stones, Alvarez could "see" the cap limestone remaining at the top of the pyramid, but he concluded a hidden chamber was unlikely in the core of the structure above the base. He told me he was now looking for a new method which could view beneath the pyramids and also explore more complex pyramids such as that of Cheops, the grandfather of Chephren.
Prof. Alvarez suggested to me and to my colleagues at SRI International that we should attempt to build a "ground-penetrating radar" to explore the pyramids, and to search for hidden tombs at Sakhara and the Valley of the Kings. With the help of in-house SRI R&D funds we soon had assembled a crude radar system and tested it in an old coal mine at Mt. Diablo, east of San Francisco. We then obtained a small grant from the National Science Foundation, teamed up with scientists from Cairo's Ain Shams University, and enthusiastically went to work at Giza in the spring of 1974. Alvarez's right hand man in Egypt, Mr. S.O. Buckingham of LBL, went with us to teach us how to work in Egypt with red tape, bureaucracy, impossible traffic, bakkshish, and the "inscrutable oriental mentality."
I had tested samples of pyramid limestone back home in the laboratory and we all believed the soft Egyptian pyramid limestone would be highly amenable to radar penetration. But arriving in Egypt - and much to our dismay - we found the pyramids are laden with moisture and salt. All of the limestones in Egypt we discovered had high clay content. Radar signals were able to penetrate the pyramids only to a depth of a foot or two. Moist humid air blowing south from the Mediterranean keeps the Giza plateau limestones damp all year around, and the high water table from the Nile is drawn up into the porous rock like a wick, bringing with it salts and minerals. Sadly, conditions were no better in the Valley of the Kings 400 miles to the South. All our hopes of finding hidden chambers, lost pharaohs or the tomb of Alexander the Great with our new megawatt pulse ground-penetrating radar were dashed.
Had it not been for the excitement of working at Egypt's ancient monuments and the much encouragement we received from the Egyptian Antiquities Department and our Ain Sham University colleagues, we would have all gone home and quit. But we did find that high-frequency seismic waves would penetrate the pyramids nicely. We were able to show that resistivity and related electrical methods were well-suited for use in Egypt. Our field work in Egypt continued for two more exciting field seasons in 1976 and 1978 after which I made numerous trips to Egypt pursuing this and other research projects.(Ref. 1). Egypt had become a second home for me, but I had never thus far visited Israel. Reports: Geophysical Methods in Egypt.
In the early 1980's, a certain Stanley Goldfoot of the Jerusalem Temple Foundation contacted me by mail suggesting I drop by Jerusalem on my next trip to Egypt. I was at that time a Senior Research Physicist in the Radio Physics Laboratory of SRI International in Menlo Park, California. My colleagues had by this time developed several types of sophisticated geophysical equipment that helped "see into the ground" - based on our earlier failures and subsequent successes in Egypt. We were looking for applications for this technology elsewhere. Stanley Goldfoot made reference in his letter to a brochure issued by SRI which stated:
Archaeology - the recovery, restoration, and preservation of priceless artifacts from the past - is a classic science requiring years of training, experience, patience, and arduous adherence to time honored disciplines. In recent years SRI scientists with equipment capable of "seeing through" rock-cultural scientists trained in electronic sensing, geophysical methods, and remote sensing-have begun successfully to apply these recent technologies to expedite the important work of the archaeologist, anthropologist and historian. Remote sensing now offers an opportunity-for the first time-to explore and unearth some of man's great "lost" historic sites. Egypt and Israel offer particularly important opportunities.
Mr. Goldfoot indicated in his first letter to me that he and a number of his friends felt the time was fast approaching when a Third Jewish Temple was destined to be built on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem. Locating the temple foundations and scientifically exploring the sight was all the more difficult, he said, because of Moslem Control of the site.
Actually, prior to receiving Stanley's letter of invitation to visit Jerusalem, I had been in correspondence for some time with a fellow physicist, Dr. Asher Kaufman, a professor at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem. I had been very interested in Asher's research into the temple location and it was already obvious to me that the Temple Mount was one of the most important unexplored archaeological sites anywhere in the world.
Though the First and Second Temples were constructed well over two thousand years ago it seemed to me, to Stanley, and to Asher that modern science might be able to solve the mystery of where the temples once stood. Because of Asher Kaufman's research - which has now spanned more than two decades - the issue of the exact spot of the First and Second Temples had been raised to a high level of public and scientific interest in Israel and abroad.
On a trip to Israel in 1982 to meet Stanley and Asher in person, I ran onto writer and Bible teacher Don Stewart. I saw that Don's experience in Israel and his knowledge of the Bible would be an immediate asset in planning a research expedition to Israel. Don also introduced me to Pastor Chuck Smith of Calvary Chapel and Costa Mesa, and to Chuck Missler, a well-known captain-of-industry living in Southern California. These godly men along with Carl Gallivan, a close friend and Silicon valley entrepreneur, soon agreed to provide financial assistance so my SRI team could investigate the usefulness of our newly developed geophysical methods in Israel. We especially wanted to "look into" the Temple Mount with our new state-of-the-art high-tech instruments.
Trip plans were made for us to go to Israel in 1982 but were halted by the shooting on the Mount by Israeli soldier Allan Goodman. We postponed our expedition reluctantly. After allowing temple-mount tensions to ease for a season we then planned for an April-May trip in 1983. But, as we were about to leave we received the following Western Union Mailgram from Israel on April 8, 1983.
"Necessary authorities opposed project this time owing to adverse press. Regretfully must recommend postponement." Theo.
Although Theo, an Israeli contact we had been working with, suggested we postpone again, we decided the trip should go ahead anyway--by faith. In mid-April of 1983 accompanied by a small caravan of foot lockers and support equipment our seven man team arrived safely in Israel. For the next six weeks we were busy conducting geophysical surveys at a number of important archaeological sites selected by some the country's top archaeologists. We all felt privileged to work with these - some of the finest archaeologists in the world - during this pilot project. We pressed into service all of our highly sophisticated equipment which included cart mounted ground-penetrating radar, portable radar, high-frequency seismic sounder, and high resolution resistivity. All of our methods permit non-destructive measurements that leave a site undisturbed. We hoped to prove to everyone's satisfaction that geophysical surveying can reveal a wealth of information about subsurface features of interest to the archaeologist.
We were pleasantly surprised to find that limestones in Israel are much more "friendly" to ground-penetrating radar - we found that our radar signals would penetrate more than a hundred feet cases at some locations. The seismic method and resistivity also worked well. We divided into two teams and soon were working at a number of archaeological sites.
Our main goal was eventually to use our geophysical equipment as near as we could to the Temple Mount. Before attempting such a politically-delicate task we decided to perfect our techniques at these other sites. Happily, all the equipment worked superbly - causing one archaeologist to remark, "It works like magic." Assuredly there was no magic involved merely the application of some simple principles for physics and some modern instruments but our early successes were exhilarating. The equipment all worked well, especially the same radar that had failed us in Egypt. Limestones in Israel proved highly radar transparent.
Our work around the country for nearly six weeks caused us to be fairly visible to the archaeological community, to the government - and to the Arabs. We knew we would be unable to obtain permission to conduct our final and most important geophysical experiments from the top of the Temple Mount - which is by far the best viewing geometry for "looking into" the mount and mapping subsurface features. However we were able to obtain full permission to work in a newly excavated tunnel which runs North along the Western Wall from the traditional prayer plaza, Ha Kotel.
Since 1967 an excavation sponsored by the Ministry of Religious Affairs (under Rabbi Yehuda Getz) has been quietly proceeding near the prayer area of the western wall of the Temple Mount. The project consists of a tunnel running more than nine hundred feet running north alongside the Western Wall. The tunnel cuts its way beneath shops and houses in the Arab section of the Old City of Jerusalem. This site, hidden from public view, is known as the Rabbinical Tunnel. The tunnel was not in 1983 accessible to the general public. That fact that we were given full access to the Temple and given permission to conduct geophysical experiments there was for us a great privilege-and led us into an unforgettable experience.
After entering from a locked metal door one starts the journey some sixty feet above the bedrock at the hall under Wilson's Arch. However as one walks this level tunnel the bedrock rises (at the Western Wall prayer wall only about 50% of the wall is exposed, the rest is below the platform of the area). At the northern end of the tunnel the visitor is about thirty feet below the bedrock's upper surface. The damp tunnel has a well lit corridor that is approximately seven feet high and five feet wide. At times one walks on wooden floorboards below which are vertical excavations and test pits. There is one particularly amazing site that steals the attention soon after entering. It is a gigantic stone, which lies nine courses above the bedrock. This single stone is 46 feet long, over 10 feet high and about ten feet deep. It is one solid piece of hewn limestone weighing over 415 tons! How this stone was cut and placed is a great mystery to the modern stone mason and archaeologist alike.
Temple Mount cistern No. 30, actually an ancient entrance into the Temple platform known as "Warren's gate," lies about 150 feet into the tunnel. This sealed off entrance has been turned into a small synagogue by Rabbi Yehuda Getz since it is the closest point a Jew can get to the temple assuming the temples were located at the traditional site, under the Dome of the Rock. Warren's gate, with its vaulted 18 foot tunnel behind, has been walled on at the Rabbinical tunnel face by a Jewish wall behind which is an Arab wall - both of recent construction. It seems an underground dispute broke out a few years ago between Jewish explorers inside Warren's gate, and Arab guards who came down to meet them through surface cistern entries. A small underground riot ensued which was only stopped when the Jerusalem police came in to restore the fragile peace of the temple mount.
A walk through the Rabbinical Tunnel tends to put a person in a reflective mood when one thinks about the history that has taken place in and around these walls. Since we could not operate our geophysical sensing equipment from the Temple Mount, our work would have to be carried out from this tunnel. Even so, we felt certain that few nights of radar and seismic exploration through the Rabbinical Tunnel would give us very valuable information about the underground features of the Temple Mount.
On May 22, 1983 our team of eight people including our affable Jewish guide Eleazar, attempted to make the first scientific survey of the rabbinical tunnel. We felt radar and seismics would quickly allow us to measure the thickness of the Western wall and to detect any walls behind the present outer wall. We hoped to locate any large open spaces inside the wall which could indicate water cisterns, a tunnel, or a perhaps a secret room where the Ark of the Covenant or ancient temple records had been hidden centuries earlier. Perhaps we could also detect the foundations of the Western Wall of the Second Temple or other structures? These foundation stones may still be in place - although Jesus had predicted that "one stone would not be left upon another," his statement might not include the foundation stone that rests upon the bedrock.
Our research was to be conducted by night for two reasons. First we needed the quiet so that the instruments, especially the seismic sounder, would work at its best capacity only without interference of the city noises and the workmen in the tunnel. Second, we thought it best to keep our mission quiet because the more people who knew what we were attempting the more complicated things would become.
Arriving at the gate of the compound of the Western Wall at 10 P.M. we were first met by the guard at the gate was ready to let our van proceed for equipment unloading at the tunnel entrance. Suddenly we were met out of nowhere by plain clothes detectives. They inquired as to what we were going to do. We identified ourselves and said we had been invited by Yehuda Getz, the Rabbi in charge of the tunnel, to do some scientific work for him. After examining our passports the plain clothes-men radioed for instructions. The answer came back to us in a few minutes - they said that we could not enter because we did not have the proper permits.
I was instructed to see a certain high official in the Security Department at the Jerusalem Police Department early the next day. Reluctantly we returned to our hotel, with a van full of unloaded equipment. I, for one, was very nervous about our first encounter with an-ever vigilant Israeli security department, but my colleagues were determined to get the proper permit first thing the next morning so we could get on with our work.
My meeting with the seasoned Sephardi Chief of Police Intelligence took place in the good company of Stanley Goldfoot early the next morning. Politely it was revealed to us by this official that we needed no permit whatsoever. We were duly informed that the government police knew everything about us, who we were, why we were coming, and that they were placed at the Western Wall gate to stop us. The reason was, the official said, they had received a call from the WAQF (the Moslem high command) to the effect that "some scientists from America are going to send electronic signals beneath our Mosque, please stop them."
The Police official said that we had done nothing wrong and that which we were trying to do was a legal and a worthy venture. In fact his profuse apology eased our fears considerably. However, he said, they feared what the Moslems might do if we were allowed to work. To avoid a possible riot and international incident (as had occurred with the ill-fated Parker expedition) they suggested we defer our plans until a future day. They were sympathetic to our effort, going out of their way to make sure we were not offended. It was their hope, we were assured, that we could, sometime soon, return and perform our desired task. At least we had not been arrested or asked to leave the country. And there had been no riots or even any close calls with angry Arabs or over zealous guards. But our entire team certainly felt a keen sense of disappointment after all our effort and preparation.
Even though the rabbinical tunnel is entirely on Jewish land under Jewish control and we had been officially invited by Rabbi Getz to perform a legitimate scientific study, because the Moslems objected we had been discretely blocked in our efforts. But, we had learned another practical lesson about life in modern Israel: the Moslems seemingly have veto power over what goes on in the tunnel as well as the Temple Mount. The authorities, wanting to preserve the status quo at holy places (at all costs), are usually willing to bend to the Moslem wishes in hopes to avoid possible confrontation. Of course we all had some sympathy for government officials charged with keeping the peace. Surely there is no more politically volatile piece of real estate in the world today than that small park-like walled plot of land - the Temple Mount - right in the heart of the Old City of Jerusalem.
Disappointed though we were in our inability to work in the Rabbinical Temple in 1983, we had a number of other accomplishments under our belt. (Details of our work at other sites and some information about modern geophysical methods and their use in archaeology have been included elsewhere on these web pages for the benefit of readers who would like to know a bit more.)
Bringing bulky equipment and scientists from the U.S. to Israel is relatively expensive even for modest projects. Because of the cost and the delicate political situation, my geophysical team has not conducted further geophysical work at the Temple Mount in the past decade. Certainly we all hope for an opportunity to return one day, God willing. We are happy to report, however, that Stanley Goldfoot, Tuvia Sagiv and some fine Israeli scientists, inspired and encouraged by our 1983 pilot project, have since taken many valuable radar observations through the Western Wall (inside and outside of the tunnel), and the Southern Wall. Fascinating thermal infra-red measurements have also been made of the Temple Mount both from locations on the ground and from a helicopter. Ground-penetrating radar has also since found an important place in the work of Israeli archaeologists at a number of sites. We had been among the first in 1983 to test the feasibility of radar in Israel. Fortunately geologic conditions are quite favorable most everywhere in the Land. Details: Geophysical Exploration in Israel: The 1983 Field Season
It is impossible to keep anything secret very long in Jerusalem. Soon after our abortive attempt to explore the Rabbinical Tunnel with geophysical equipment the Jerusalem Post ran the following story:
Arming archaeologists with electronic devices to probe the ground would seem to take the sporting element out of the exercise-like providing bullfighters with RPG's.
But Israeli archaeologists, like their colleagues abroad, have been quick to place science above sport when offered the opportunity of abetting their instincts with electronics.
Some of the most sophisticated equipment in the world for taking soundings through the ground and thick walls was recently employed on several of the most notable digs in the country by an American group that developed its expertise in defense work for the U.S. government.
The group, headed by physicist Lambert Dolphin, is part of SRI International of Menlo Park, California . . . They brought with them equipment that included ground-penetrating radar and electrodes employed in a "high resolution automatic resistivity" method said to be capable of drawing an underground contour map. . .
In Hebron, the team took readings of the ground beneath the Tomb of the Patriarchs while remaining outside the structure. However, the planned highlight of the visit-a probe of the Temple Mount-did not come off.
Dolphin said he had received permission from the rabbi of the Western Wall, Rabbi Yehuda Getz, to position his equipment in the tunnel dug by the Religious Affairs Ministry north of the Western Wall. His intention was to probe electronically beneath the mount to see whether he could find indications of subterranean passages in which objects of historical or religious significance may have been buried.
However, as the team approached the tunnel they were intercepted and turned back by Israeli police operating at the behest of the Supreme Moslem Council, which had apparently been warned of their activities by Moslem officials in Hebron. (Ref. 2).
A second article appearing in the Jerusalem Post soon after further fueled the controversy surrounding our first attempts to applied modern geophysical methods to the service of archaeologist in Israel:
There are significant, and to some minds worrisome links between a handful of American Evangelical leaders and right-wing Israelis like [Stanley] Goldfoot. Some of the personalities on his board are important men. Lambert Dolphin, heads a key section of the world's most massive research conglomerate, the Stanford Research Institute, a $200-million-a-year concern whose main clients are the U.S. government and corporations like Bechtel . . .
Before the Temple Mount plotters - both the Lifta terrorists and the Gush Emunim terror group were arrested, Goldfoot and Dolphin planned to hover one day just before dawn in a helicopter 300 metres above the Temple Mount and the Holy of Holies (where the Ark of the Covenant was kept), and to X-ray and probe the innards of the mount with Dolphin's induced polarization set, Cesium Beam Magnetometer, down hole Borescope television and high-power Dipole-Dipole Resistivity Set to find out just what is buried down there. . . Along with Lambert Dolphin they [Other Christian Temple Mount Activists] condemned the abortive attempt (by the Lifta Group) to blow up the Dome of the Rock. But they feel "violence" is being done to the most sacred site "when Jewish prayer books are seized by Temple Guards from devout Jewish women. (Ref. 3)
Because of the numerous inaccuracies in the article I immediately sent the following letter to the Jerusalem Post:
Editor, Jerusalem Post
July 6, 1983
Your article "Slouching towards Armageddon . . ." contains so many distortions of fact and so much vilification directed at well intentioned Israelis and friends of friends of Israel I can not help but wonder if this is part of a conspiracy of some kind? I deeply regret the cheap attacks on my good friend Stanley Goldfoot who has spent much time and taken much trouble to free me from anti-Semitism and ignorance of Jewish values and Jewish consciousness. I have been in Israel only three times: two and a half days in late 1981, two weeks in early 1982 and 7 weeks last summer.
The latter trip when I was accompanied by six colleagues consisted of donated geophysical services to half a dozen leading Israeli archaeologists intended to advance the state of Archaeological knowledge and methodology in Israel. This work was paid for by four American Christians and one Jewish businessman. All funds were used for team expenses and salaries. No funds were donated or passed to any individual or group in Israel. I regret not having additional funds, as I would be glad to contribute them to your nation's leading archaeologists to be used at their discretion for their important excavation work. SRI International of course supports me in legitimate scientific research such as this.
My religious views are my own personal opinions and beliefs. I have been a Christian for 22 years and feel a great debt to the Jewish people for giving the world both the Old and New Testaments which I hold are historically accurate, divinely inspired and fully authoritative in all areas of faith and life. I believe the covenant God made with the Jewish people through Abraham extends to all gentiles who come to the Holy One of Israel through the Messiah Jesus. I would like to see the Temple rebuilt, but am not a member of the Jerusalem Temple Foundation nor do I wish to participate in the building planning or program. This effort, I believe, is part of the Jewish religious economy, not the calling of God for the church. Of course I would like to see the Temple mount explored scientifically and non-destructively apart from all religious and political considerations.
I believe freedom of worship and prayer on the Temple Mount should now be extended to include Jews and Christians and that by faith the Jewish people should regain administration of the Temple Mount as part of your own legitimate religious and Biblical heritage given you by God. I deplore the widespread apathy, indifference and hostility toward the Holy One in the holy land knowing this only speeds the "time of Jacob's trouble" which will be marked by terrible trial and much suffering as the prophets have all said. Israel's glorious destiny is sure and for that I rejoice. You seem to not need any external enemies since there is so much in-country backbiting, character assassination and self-destructiveness. Friends you do need, and I remain a friend and supporter of the people and state of Israel in spite of being misunderstood and misrepresented.
As of this writing, no one yet knows for certain which of the possible candidate sites on the Temple Mount was the place where the First and Second Temple stood. If our team had been permitted to use the sophisticated equipment in the Rabbinical Tunnel we have reason to believe we may have been able in time to help solve the problem. Perhaps we can return and continue our work at a future time. Other scientific methods that could be used to settle the issue. The following newspaper article explains a process known as "thermal infra-red imaging" which was pioneered by a Stanford graduate school classmate of mine, fellow Christian Nancy DelGrande,
Nearly 30 centuries after King Solomon completed the temple in Jerusalem, an airborne temperature survey method developed by a Lawrence Livermore Lab physicist may be used to pinpoint the Temple's exact location.
L-Division's Nancy DelGrande, who invented the temperature survey method in the mid-1970's, plans to serve as a consultant for finding the Temple's site. . . As planned, DelGrande's survey technique will be used . . . to test a theory by physics professor Asher Kaufman of Jerusalem-based Hebrew University.
Kaufman's theory, based on geology, literary sources and archaeological finds, is that the first Temple built by King Solomon and the second Temple constructed by Zerubbabel-enlarged by Herod the Great-are about 100 meters away from the Dome of the Rock, a Moslem Shrine.
The Hebrew University professor's theory flies in the face of tradition and scholarly writings, which have held for 13 centuries that the two temples were built on the Dome of the Rock site, DelGrande noted.
Kaufman believes artifacts from the two temples are within a half meter of the surface, but scientific archaeological digs are not allowed at that location, DelGrande said. As a result the airborne temperature surveys developed by the Lab physicist would measure surface temperature differences from seasonal effects which heat the artifacts at different rates than their surroundings to check Kaufman's theory.
DelGrande invented her airborne temperature survey method in 1974, just after the energy crisis hit and Lab researchers were asked whether their work could be applied to seek new energy sources.
At the time she was measuring the temperature in the environment of underground nuclear explosions by studying the x-ray radiation the explosions generated. She decided the same process could measure the earth's temperature if researchers focused on naturally-emitted infrared radiation.
DelGrande's method, which was tested at the Long Valley geothermal resource area in California in 1977, uses two infrared bands. The survey method is five to 10 times more accurate than standard single band surveys, she noted.
This makes it suitable for mapping subtle surface temperature differences from artifacts such as cisterns, drainage tunnels and wall remains beneath the flagstone and surrounding land areas of the old Temple site," DelGrande said.
DelGrande estimates that 12 flights would need to be flown over the Temple site at different altitudes and under different environmental conditions. (Ref. 4)
Although Nancy DelGrande has not been successful thus far in raising the substantial funding needed to bring an American thermal infra-red scanner to Israel to study the Temple Mount her pioneering efforts and scientific papers ultimately brought about the very valuable work of Tuvia Sagiv conducted in 1992 and 1994. Tuvia was able to obtain the use of a suitable scanner from a University in Israel and with the help of volunteers and donated services has obtained some excellent heat flow patterns of the surface and walls of the Temple Mount.
From the New Testament's clear references to a Third Temple yet to be built on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem, the authors believe the time is fast approaching when the Temple Mount will (by one means or another) be accessible both for full-scale geophysical exploration, and for digging and exploring. The vast network of presently sealed underground cisterns and tunnels under the Mount may contain records and artifacts dating back to the days of Solomon. No systematic and thorough exploration beneath the mount has ever been undertaken. Some chambers and tunnels have quite probably been completely inaccessible since the destruction of the First Temple on the 9th of Av in 586 B.C.
From a Jewish point of view, the Third Temple must be built on the previously sanctified foundation where both the First and Second Temples stood. Finding this exact location is but one aspect of the complete scientific and archaeological exploration of the Mount which we hope can be started in the near future. The Temple Mount will become more and more a central focal point of what the God of the Bible has planned for the entire human race. The future of the Temple Mount is of interest to everyone - Jews, Arab, believers and non-believers, visitors from near and from far.
Great is the LORD and greatly to be praised in the city of our God! His holy mountain, beautiful in elevation, is the joy of all the earth, Mount Zion, in the far north, the city of the great King. Within her citadels God has shown himself a sure defense. For lo, the kings assembled, they came on together. As soon as they saw it, they were astounded, they were in panic, they took to flight; trembling took hold of them there, anguish as of a woman in travail. By the east wind thou didst shatter the ships of Tarshish. As we have heard, so have we seen in the city of the LORD of hosts, in the city of our God, which God establishes for ever. [Selah] We have thought on thy steadfast love, O God, in the midst of thy temple. As thy name, O God, so thy praise reaches to the ends of the earth. Thy right hand is filled with victory; let Mount Zion be glad! Let the daughters of Judah rejoice because of thy judgments! Walk about Zion, go round about her, number her towers, consider well her ramparts, go through her citadels; that you may tell the next generation that this is God, our God for ever and ever. He will be our guide for ever. (Psalm 48. A Psalm of the Sons of Korah)
1. Dolphin, Lambert, et al, Electromagnetic Sounder Experiments at the Pyramids of Giza, by Joint Egypt-USA Team, May 1975 and Application of Modern Sensing Techniques to Egyptology, 1977 Report by Joint Team. NSF Grant GF-38767, SRI International, 333 Ravenswood Avenue, Menlo Park, CA 94025.
2. Abraham Rabinovich, Jerusalem Post, August 1, 1983.
3. Louis Rappaport, Slouching Towards Armageddon: Links with Evangelicals, Jerusalem Post, June 1984.
4. Steve Wampler, Newsline/Weekly Bulletin, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Wednesday, October 31, 1984
Lambert Dolphin's Library
The Temple Mount Web Site
revised June 22, 1995.