Absolute Geocentricity

Psalms 8

The Glory of the Lord in Creation
To the Chief Musician. On the instrument of Gath.

A Psalm of David.

O Lord, our Lord,
How excellent is Your name in all the earth,
Who have set Your glory above the heavens!
Out of the mouth of babes and nursing infants
You have ordained strength,
Because of Your enemies,
That you may silence the enemy and the avenger.
When I consider Your heavens, the work of Your fingers,
The moon and the stars, which You have ordained,
What is man that You are mindful of him,
And the son of man that You visit him?
For You have made him a little lower than the angels,
And You have crowned him with glory and honor.
You have made him to have dominion over the works of Your hands;
You have put all things under his feet,
All sheep and oxen—
Even the beasts of the field,
The birds of the air,
And the fish of the sea
That pass through the paths of the seas.
O Lord, our Lord,
How excellent is Your name in all the earth!


Is There a Center of Everything?

Classic Geocentricity theories seem quaint today and are referenced below. The discussion here is based on the revelation of God found in the Bible. We have only scratched the surface here hoping to provoke discussion and inquiry.

Jesus Christ said the skeptics of his day, "You search the Scriptures, for in them you think you have eternal life; and these are they which testify of Me. But you are not willing to come to Me that you may have life." (John 5:39-40)

But King Solomon said, "It is the glory of God to conceal a matter. But the glory of kings is to search out a matter."

Jesus also told his disciples: “So I say to you, ask, and it will be given to you; seek, and you will find; knock, and it will be opened to you.  For everyone who asks receives, and he who seeks finds, and to him who knocks it will be opened. If a son asks for bread from any father among you, will he give him a stone? Or if he asks for a fish, will he give him a serpent instead of a fish?  Or if he asks for an egg, will he offer him a scorpion?  If you then, being evil, know how to give good gifts to your children, how much more will your heavenly Father give the Holy Spirit to those who ask Him!” (Luke 11:9-13)

We suggest that man ought to be the center of the universe but only the man Jesus is qualified. Psalm 8 raises the question "What is Man" and the letter of Hebrews says that fallen man is about to be restored with Jesus as Trailblazer and Pioneer of a huge restoration.

We each grow up in a culture influence by a prevailing world view. The prevailing can change but we forget this because we think we know more than our forefathers. A small number (<10%?) of citizens in our nation enjoy a personal relationship with the Creator who lives outside, above, transcendent to culture. The Christian Church exists to show the way to know God but has had been a declining influence for many years now. Many think they are “safe” when they probably are not, because they are sheltered by a church, by a “Christian” school or seminary, or by merely running on autopilot as "law abiding citizens" in America. 

The real God is, however, fully involved in every detail of His Creation. He has unlimited power and resources but He owns the whole place and we are house guests at best.

Job was the most godly man in the ancient world about 4000 years ago. He was utterly blameless. Yet God called poor Job into court and asked Job some ego-shattering questions. The Lord Reveals His Omnipotence to Job



This article is not about a scientific world-view,
nor about a secular model based on history or philosophy.
Major problems
do exist in science today.
The prevailing paradigm is very much coming apart.
These issues are not discussed here.

What is Revelation from God?

Several main points about Earth being the center of our universe can be discerned from the Bible.

Point 1. Earth was a fixed platform where God stood when He created everything

It is said, in Jewish tradition, that the Creator stood on the "foundation stone," Hebrew: אבן השתייה‎ Even ha-Shtiyya or Hebrew: סֶּלַע‏‎ Selā‛) -- when He created the world. (See footnote on the Foundation Stone).

1. In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. 2. The earth was without form, and void; and darkness was on the face of the deep.  And the Spirit of God was hovering over the face of the waters.

3. Then God said, “Let there be light”; and there was light. 4. And God saw the light, that it was good; and God divided the light from the darkness. 5. God called the light Day, and the darkness He called Night. So the evening and the morning were the first day.


The first five verses are being observed from a platform outside of the entire ensemble, but from verse 6 on our hypothetical observer is standing on the earth as it were! Look how the vantage point changes at 1:6! 

6. Then God said, “Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters.” 7. Thus God made the firmament, and divided the waters which were under the firmament from the waters which were above the firmament; and it was so. 8. And God called the firmament Heaven. So the evening and the morning were the second day.

Then God said, “Let the waters under the heavens be gathered together into one place, and let the dry land appear”; and it was so. And God called the dry land Earth, and the gathering together of the waters He called Seas. And God saw that it was good.

Then God said, “Let the earth bring forth grass, the herb that yields seed, and the fruit tree that yields fruit according to its kind, whose seed is in itself, on the earth”; and it was so. And the earth brought forth grass, the herb that yields seed according to its kind, and the tree that yields fruit, whose seed is in itself according to its kind. And God saw that it was good. So the evening and the morning were the third day.

Then God said, “Let there be lights in the firmament of the heavens to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs and seasons, and for days and years; and let them be for lights in the firmament of the heavens to give light on the earth”; and it was so. Then God made two great lights: the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night. He made the stars also. God set them in the firmament of the heavens to give light on the earth, and to rule over the day and over the night, and to divide the light from the darkness. And God saw that it was good. So the evening and the morning were the fourth day.

Then God said, “Let the waters abound with an abundance of living creatures, and let birds fly above the earth across the face of the firmament of the heavens.” So God created great sea creatures and every living thing that moves, with which the waters abounded, according to their kind, and every winged bird according to its kind. And God saw that it was good. And God blessed them, saying, “Be fruitful and multiply, and fill the waters in the seas, and let birds multiply on the earth.” So the evening and the morning were the fifth day.

Then God said, “Let the earth bring forth the living creature according to its kind: cattle and creeping thing and beast of the earth, each according to its kind”; and it was so. And God made the beast of the earth according to its kind, cattle according to its kind, and everything that creeps on the earth according to its kind. And God saw that it was good.

Then God said, “Let Us make man in Our image, according to Our likeness; let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, over the birds of the air, and over the cattle, over all the earth and over every creeping thing that creeps on the earth.” So God created man in His own image; in the image of God He created him; male and female He created them. Then God blessed them, and God said to them, “Be fruitful and multiply; fill the earth and subdue it; have dominion over the fish of the sea, over the birds of the air, and over every living thing that moves on the earth.”

And God said, “See, I have given you every herb that yields seed which is on the face of all the earth, and every tree whose fruit yields seed; to you it shall be for food. Also, to every beast of the earth, to every bird of the air, and to everything that creeps on the earth, in which there is life, I have given every green herb for food”; and it was so. Then God saw everything that He had made, and indeed it was very good. So the evening and the morning were the sixth day...


Man was introduced into the creation late in the creative process. Who then is the observer watching God at work? From what platform is the observer looking in and recording the amazing work of a Creator? 

Point 2. The Creator visited earth by choosing to be incarnated here in earth. (Bethlehem) 

Now the birth of Jesus Christ was as follows: After His mother Mary was betrothed to Joseph, before they came together, she was found with child of the Holy Spirit. Then Joseph her husband, being a just man, and not wanting to make her a public example, was minded to put her away secretly. But while he thought about these things, behold, an angel of the Lord appeared to him in a dream, saying, “Joseph, son of David, do not be afraid to take to you Mary your wife, for that which is conceived in her is of the Holy Spirit. And she will bring forth a Son, and you shall call His name Jesus, for He will save His people from their sins.” So all this was done that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the Lord through the prophet, saying: “Behold, the virgin shall be with child, and bear a Son, and they shall call His name Immanuel,” which is translated, “God with us.” (Matthew 1:18-23)

Now in the sixth month the angel Gabriel was sent by God to a city of Galilee named Nazareth, to a virgin betrothed to a man whose name was Joseph, of the house of David. The virgin’s name was Mary. And having come in, the angel said to her, “Rejoice, highly favored one, the Lord is with you; blessed are you among women!”

But when she saw him, she was troubled at his saying, and considered what manner of greeting this was. Then the angel said to her, “Do not be afraid, Mary, for you have found favor with God. And behold, you will conceive in your womb and bring forth a Son, and shall call His name Jesus. He will be great, and will be called the Son of the Highest; and the Lord God will give Him the throne of His father David. And He will reign over the house of Jacob forever, and of His kingdom there will be no end.”

Then Mary said to the angel, “How can this be, since I do not know a man?”

And the angel answered and said to her, “The Holy Spirit will come upon you, and the power of the Highest will overshadow you; therefore, also, that Holy One who is to be born will be called the Son of God. (Luke 1:26-35)

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. He was in the beginning with God. All things were made through Him, and without Him nothing was made that was made. In Him was life, and the life was the light of men. And the light shines in the darkness, and the darkness did not comprehend it. (John 1:1-5)


Point 3. Jesus, the man who said he was God, was killed by his subjects by crucifixion on Planet Earth. (Jerusalem)

“However, the Most High does not dwell in temples made with hands, as the prophet says:
‘Heaven is My throne,
And earth is My footstool.
What house will you build for Me? says the Lord,
Or what is the place of My rest?
Has My hand not made all these things?’

“You stiff-necked and uncircumcised in heart and ears! You always resist the Holy Spirit; as your fathers did, so do you. Which of the prophets did your fathers not persecute? And they killed those who foretold the coming of the Just One, of whom you now have become the betrayers and murderers, who have received the law by the direction of angels and have not kept it.” (Acts 7:48-53)


Point 4. The Creator announced He would return and govern the universe from Jerusalem

Now when Jesus had spoken these things, while they watched, He was taken up, and a cloud received Him out of their sight. And while they looked steadfastly toward heaven as He went up, behold, two men stood by them in white apparel, who also said, “Men of Galilee, why do you stand gazing up into heaven? This same Jesus, who was taken up from you into heaven, will so come in like manner as you saw Him go into heaven.” (Acts 1:9-11)

Behold, the day of the Lord is coming,
And your spoil will be divided in your midst.
For I will gather all the nations to battle against Jerusalem;
The city shall be taken,
The houses rifled,
And the women ravished.
Half of the city shall go into captivity,
But the remnant of the people shall not be cut off from the city.
Then the Lord will go forth
And fight against those nations,
As He fights in the day of battle.
And in that day His feet will stand on the Mount of Olives,
Which faces Jerusalem on the east.
And the Mount of Olives shall be split in two,
From east to west,
Making a very large valley;
Half of the mountain shall move toward the north
And half of it toward the south.
Then you shall flee through My mountain valley,
For the mountain valley shall reach to Azal.
Yes, you shall flee
As you fled from the earthquake
In the days of Uzziah king of Judah.
Thus the Lord my God will come,
And all the saints with You.
It shall come to pass in that day
That there will be no light;
The lights will diminish.
It shall be one day
Which is known to the Lord—
Neither day nor night.
But at evening time it shall happen
That it will be light.
And in that day it shall be
That living waters shall flow from Jerusalem,
Half of them toward the eastern sea
And half of them toward the western sea;
In both summer and winter it shall occur.
And the Lord shall be King over all the earth.
In that day it shall be—
“The Lord is one,”
And His name one.
All the land shall be turned into a plain from Geba to Rimmon south of Jerusalem. Jerusalem shall be raised up and inhabited in her place from Benjamin’s Gate to the place of the First Gate and the Corner Gate, and from the Tower of Hananel to the king’s winepresses.
The people shall dwell in it;
And no longer shall there be utter destruction,
But Jerusalem shall be safely inhabited...

And it shall come to pass that everyone who is left of all the nations which came against Jerusalem shall go up from year to year to worship the King, the Lord of hosts, and to keep the Feast of Tabernacles. And it shall be that whichever of the families of the earth do not come up to Jerusalem to worship the King, the Lord of hosts, on them there will be no rain.
(Zechariah 14:1-17)

Point 5. The Creator announced plans to create a new earth and new heavens

Now I saw a new heaven and a new earth, for the first heaven and the first earth had passed away. Also there was no more sea. Then I, John, saw the holy city, New Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven from God, prepared as a bride adorned for her husband. And I heard a loud voice from heaven saying, “Behold, the tabernacle of God is with men, and He will dwell with them, and they shall be His people. God Himself will be with them and be their God. And God will wipe away every tear from their eyes; there shall be no more death, nor sorrow, nor crying. There shall be no more pain, for the former things have passed away.”

Then He who sat on the throne said, “Behold, I make all things new.” And He said to me, “Write, for these words are true and faithful.”
And He said to me, “It is done! I am the Alpha and the Omega, the Beginning and the End. I will give of the fountain of the water of life freely to him who thirsts. He who overcomes shall inherit all things, and I will be his God and he shall be My son. But the cowardly, unbelieving, abominable, murderers, sexually immoral, sorcerers, idolaters, and all liars shall have their part in the lake which burns with fire and brimstone, which is the second death.”

(Revelation 21:1-8)

Point 6. Man, made in the Image of God, plays a central role in the universe! One unique man (Jesus) is in charge at this moment

"And war broke out in heaven: Michael and his angels fought with the dragon; and the dragon and his angels fought, but they did not prevail, nor was a place found for them in heaven any longer. So the great dragon was cast out, that serpent of old, called the Devil and Satan, who deceives the whole world; he was cast to the earth, and his angels were cast out with him.

Then I heard a loud voice saying in heaven, “Now salvation, and strength, and the kingdom of our God, and the power of His Christ have come, for the accuser of our brethren, who accused them before our God day and night, has been cast down. And they overcame him by the blood of the Lamb and by the word of their testimony, and they did not love their lives to the death. Therefore rejoice, O heavens, and you who dwell in them! Woe to the inhabitants of the earth and the sea! For the devil has come down to you, having great wrath, because he knows that he has a short time.” (Revelation 12:7-12)

Point 7. Man is the True Temple 

"For we are God’s fellow workers; you are God’s field, you are God’s building. According to the grace of God which was given to me, as a wise master builder I have laid the foundation, and another builds on it. But let each one take heed how he builds on it. For no other foundation can anyone lay than that which is laid, which is Jesus Christ. Now if anyone builds on this foundation with gold, silver, precious stones, wood, hay, straw, each one’s work will become clear; for the Day will declare it, because it will be revealed by fire; and the fire will test each one’s work, of what sort it is. If anyone’s work which he has built on it endures, he will receive a reward. If anyone’s work is burned, he will suffer loss; but he himself will be saved, yet so as through fire.

Do you not know that you are the temple of God and that the Spirit of God dwells in you? If anyone defiles the temple of God, God will destroy him. For the temple of God is holy, which temple you are."

"Let no one deceive himself. If anyone among you seems to be wise in this age, let him become a fool that he may become wise. For the wisdom of this world is foolishness with God. For it is written, “He catches the wise in their own craftiness”;  and again, “The Lord knows the thoughts of the wise, that they are futile.”  Therefore let no one boast in men. For all things are yours:  whether Paul or Apollos or Cephas, or the world or life or death, or things present or things to come—all are yours.  And you are Christ’s, and Christ is God’s. (1 Corinthians 3:9-23)

Wheels Within Wheels

Conclusions

Why do we believe current scientific explanations regarding the origin of all things and take naturalistic scientific models as if they had been to us by God at Mt. Sinai? Mostly because we hate God and insist in our own models of reality, whether about Inner Space or Outer Space.

All the evidence in the Bible is clear that earth is center focus in the creation — at the physical level at least. Never mind there are probably 10-20 dimensions in the unseen spiritual realm as Missler said. 

Under the Thin Veneer of “Civilization” is Raw Paganism. There are No Accidents! There is no such thing as chance.

From Jesus: There were present at that season some who told Him about the Galileans whose blood Pilate had mingled with their sacrifices. And Jesus answered and said to them, “Do you suppose that these Galileans were worse sinners than all other Galileans, because they suffered such things?  I tell you, no; but unless you repent you will all likewise perish. Or those eighteen on whom the tower in Siloam fell and killed them, do you think that they were worse sinners than all other men who dwelt in Jerusalem? I tell you, no; but unless you repent you will all likewise perish.”

Jesus also spoke this parable: “A certain man had a fig tree planted in his vineyard, and he came seeking fruit on it and found none. Then he said to the keeper of his vineyard, ‘Look, for three years I have come seeking fruit on this fig tree and find none. Cut it down; why does it use up the ground?’ But he answered and said to him, ‘Sir, let it alone this year also, until I dig around it and fertilize it. And if it bears fruit, well. But if not, after that you can cut it down.’ (Luke 13:1-9)

 
Does God Need a Temple?
The Temple Mount in Jerusalem
Man, the True Temple

"Jesus is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn over all creation.
For by Him all things were created that are in heaven and that are on earth, visible and invisible,
whether thrones or dominions or principalities or powers.
All things were created through Him and for Him. 
And He is before all things, and in Him all things consist. 

And He is the head of the body, the church, who is the beginning, 
the firstborn from the dead, that in all things He may have the preeminence.
"
For it pleased the Father that in Him all the fullness should dwell, and by Him to reconcile all things to Himself, by Him,
whether things on earth or things in heaven, having made peace through the blood of His cross." (Colossians 1:15-20)


Dante's Geocentricity

Historic Geocentricity Notes


The old school papers on this topic are sorta lame. The claim here is not that the earth is the center of the universe, but that Jesus the Son of God is.

Historic Papers on Geocentricity

Also from 2003:
http://www.geocentricity.com/
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geocentric_model
http://www.geocentricity.com/astronomy_of_bible/morningstars.pdf



The Foundation Stone

Jewish tradition views the Holy of Holies as the spiritual junction of Heaven and Earth, the axis mundi, and is therefore the direction that Jews face when praying the Amidah.[citation needed] The other view, that this was the site of the Outer Altar, would explain the holes in the stone which served various sacrificial purposes in the Outer Altar.[citation needed] From a classical Jewish textual standpoint, there is no conclusive opinion on the matter.

The rock is located towards the centre of the Temple Mount, an artificial platform built and expanded over many centuries. The current shape is the result of an expansion by Herod the Great on top of vaults over a summit called Mount Moriah which three millennia ago was the highest elevation in early Jerusalem's proximity to the City of David.

There is some controversy among secular scholars about equating Mount Moriah, the Temple Mount and the Foundation Stone as the location where events occurred according to the Biblical narrative.

Early Jewish writings assist in confirming that the Dome of the Rock, completed in 691, is the site of the Holy of Holies and therefore the location of the Foundation Stone. Pirke De-Rabbi Eliezer, a midrashic narrative of the more important events of the Torah believed to have been compiled in Italy shortly after 833 CE, writes: “Rabbi Ishmael said: In the future, the sons of Ishmael (the Arabs) will do fifteen things in the Land of Israel … They will fence in the breaches of the walls of the Temple and construct a building on the site of the sanctuary”.

Rabbis have discussed the precise location of the rock. David ben Solomon ibn Abi Zimra was convinced that “under the dome on the Temple Mount, which the Arabs call El-Sakhrah, without a doubt is the location of the Foundation Stone”. The Travels of Petachia of Ratisbon, c.1180, The Travels of Benjamin of Tudela and The Travels of the Student of the Ramban all equally state that "on the Temple Mount stands a beautiful sanctuary which an Arab king built long ago, over the place of the Temple sanctuary and courtyard”. Obadiah ben Abraham Bartenura, who wrote a letter from Jerusalem in 1488, says that “I sought the place of the Foundation Stone where the Ark of the Covenant was placed, and many people told me it is under a tall and beautiful dome which the Arabs built in the Temple precinct".

Other traditional sources disagreed; operating under the belief that the Southern Wall of the Temple Mount as it stood in their time was the Southern Wall of the Biblical era, they argued that the measurements given in the Talmud do not reconcile. The Holy of Holies ends up being too far north and they therefore locate the Foundation Stone as being directly opposite the current exposed section of the Western Wall, where no building currently stands. This is the view of Isaac Luria and the Maharsh, who state the prophecy that “Zion will become a ploughed field” indicates that no dwelling will be established there until the time of the Redemption. It therefore follows that the footprint of the Temple courtyard and Holy of Holies is situated in the unbuilt area between the Dome of the Rock and al-Aqsa Mosque.

Some believe the position is north of the Dome of the Rock, opposite the Gate of Mercy, which Emmanuel Hai Ricci identifies as the Shushan Gate mentioned in the Talmud. This gate was described as being opposite the opening of the sanctuary.

Modern Jewish academics list four possible locations of the Foundation Stone:

  1. The stone that was located beneath the Ark of the Covenant is the one under the Dome of the Rock.
  2. The stone that was located beneath the altar is now the one that is under the Dome of the Rock.
  3. The stone that was located beneath the Ark of the Covenant is now near El Kas fountain to the South of the Dome of the Rock.
  4. The stone that was located beneath the Ark of the Covenant is now inside the Spirits Dome situated to the North of the Dome of the Rock.

The Mishnah gives the height of the rock as three thumb-breadths (min. 6 cm SI) above the ground. Radbaz discusses the apparent contradiction of the Mishnah’s measurements and the actual measurement of the rock within the Dome he estimates as a “height of two men” above the ground. He concluded that many changes in the natural configuration of the Temple Mount have taken place which can be attributed to excavations made by the various occupiers of Jerusalem since the Second Temple construction.

Jewish significance

Temple in Jerusalem. This is the holiest site in Judaism. Jews all over the world pray towards the Foundation Stone. The Roman-Era midrash Tanhuma sums up the centrality of and holiness of this site in Judaism:

As the navel is set in the centre of the human body,
so is the land of Israel the navel of the world...
situated in the centre of the world,
and Jerusalem in the centre of the land of Israel,
and the sanctuary in the centre of Jerusalem,
and the holy place in the centre of the sanctuary,
and the ark in the centre of the holy place,
and the Foundation Stone before the holy place,
because from it the world was founded.
According to the sages of the Talmud, it was from this rock that the world was created, itself being the first part of the Earth to come into existence. In the words of the Zohar, "The world was not created until God took a stone called Even haShetiya and threw it into the depths where it was fixed from above till below, and from it the world expanded. It is the centre point of the world and on this spot stood the Holy of Holies."

According to the Talmud, it was close to here, on the site of the altar, that God gathered the earth that was formed into Adam. It was on this rock that Adam—and later Cain and Abel and Noah—offered sacrifices to God. Jewish sources identify this rock as the place of the Binding of Isaac mentioned in the Bible, where Abraham fulfilled God's test to see if he would be willing to sacrifice his son. The mountain is identified as Moriah in Genesis 22. It is also identified as the rock upon which Jacob dreamt about angels ascending and descending on a ladder and consequently consecrating and offering a sacrifice upon.

When, according to the Bible, King David purchased a threshing floor owned by Araunah the Jebusite, it is believed that it was upon this rock that he offered the sacrifice mentioned in the verse. He wanted to construct a permanent temple there, but as his hands were "bloodied", he was forbidden to do so himself. The task was left to his son Solomon, who completed the Temple in c. 950 BCE.

The Mishnah in tractate Yoma mentions a stone situated in the Holy of Holies that was called Shetiya and had been revealed by the early prophets (i.e. David and Samuel.

An early Christian source noting Jewish attachment to the rock may be found in the Itinerarium Burdigalense, written between 333–334 CE when Jerusalem was under Roman rule, which describes a "perforated stone to which the Jews come every year and anoint it, bewail themselves with groans, rend their garments, and so depart."

Role in the Temple

Situated inside the Holy of Holies, this was the rock upon which the Ark of the Covenant was placed in Solomon's Temple. During the Second Temple period when the Ark of the Covenant was not present, the stone was used by the High Priest who offered up the incense and sprinkled the blood of the sacrifices on it during the Yom Kippur service.

Commemoration in Jewish law

The Jerusalem Talmud states:

"נשייא דנהגן דלא למי שתייה עמרא מן דאב עליל מנהג – שבו פסקה אבן שתייה".

Women are accustomed not to prepare or attach warp threads to a weaving loom from Rosh Chodesh Av onwards (till after Tisha B'Av), because during the month of Av the Foundation Stone [and the Temple] was destroyed.

Citing this, the Mishnah Berurah rules that not only are women not to prepare or attach warp threads to a weaving loom, but it is forbidden for anyone to make, buy or wear new clothes or shoes from the beginning of the week in which Tisha B'Av falls until after the fast, and that people should ideally not do so from the beginning of Av.

In further commemoration of the Foundation Stone, it is also forbidden to eat meat or drink wine from the beginning of the week in which Tisha B'av falls until after the fast. Some have the custom to refrain from these foodstuffs from Rosh Chodesh Av, while others do so from the Seventeenth of Tammuz.[30]

Islamic significance

The Temple Mount, where the Foundation Stone is located, is thought by commentators of the Qur'an to be the place to which Muhammad traveled in the Night Journey. Although the Qur'an does not specifically mention Jerusalem in name as the ascension site, labeling the site as the Al-Aqsa Mosque, the Hadith, the recorded sayings of Muhammad, specify that the site is indeed the Foundation Stone in Jerusalem. According to Islamic belief, angels visited the site 2,000 years before the creation of Adam. It is also thought to be the place where Israfil, the angel of the trumpet, will sound his horn on Resurrection Day.

Beneath the Foundation Stone is a cavern known as the Well of Souls. It is sometimes thought of as the traditional hiding place of the Ark of the Covenant.

World Views: Some Background from Wikipedia 

The Age of Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Reason or simply the Enlightenment) was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 17th to 19th century.

The ideas of the Enlightenment undermined the authority of the monarchy and the Church and paved the way for the political revolutions of the 18th and 19th centuries. A variety of 19th-century movements, including liberalism and neoclassicism, trace their intellectual heritage to the Enlightenment.

The Enlightenment included a range of ideas centered on the sovereignty of reason and the evidence of the senses as the primary sources of knowledge and advanced ideals such as libertyprogresstolerationfraternity,  constitutional government and separation of church and state.[5][6]In France, the central doctrines of the Enlightenment philosophers were individual liberty and religious tolerance, in opposition to an absolute monarchy and the fixed dogmas of the Roman Catholic Church. The Enlightenment was marked by an emphasis on the scientific method and reductionism, along with increased questioning of religious orthodoxy—an attitude captured by Immanuel Kant's essay Answering the Question:What is Enlightenment, where the phrase Sapere aude (Dare to know) can be found.[7]

...The scientific method is an empirical method of acquiring knowledge that has characterized the development of science since at least the 17th century. It involves careful observation, applying rigorous skepticism about what is observed, given that cognitive assumptions can distort how one interprets the observation. It involves formulating hypotheses, via induction, based on such observations; experimental and measurement-based testing of deductions drawn from the hypotheses; and refinement (or elimination) of the hypotheses based on the experimental findings. These are principles of the scientific method, as distinguished from a definitive series of steps applicable to all scientific enterprises

Science played an important role in Enlightenment discourse and thought. Many Enlightenment writers and thinkers had backgrounds in the sciences and associated scientific advancement with the overthrow of religion and traditional authority in favour of the development of free speech and thought. Scientific progress during the Enlightenment included the discovery of carbon dioxide (fixed air) by the chemist Joseph Black, the argument for deep time by the geologist James Hutton and the invention of the condensing steam engine by James Watt. The experiments of Lavoisier were used to create the first modern chemical plants in Paris and the experiments of the Montgolfier Brothers enabled them to launch the first manned flight in a hot-air balloon on 21 November 1783 from the Château de la Muette, near the Bois de Boulogne.

Broadly speaking, Enlightenment science greatly valued empiricism and rational thought and was embedded with the Enlightenment ideal of advancement and progress. The study of science, under the heading of natural philosophy, was divided into physics and a conglomerate grouping of chemistry and natural history, which included anatomy, biology, geologymineralogy and zoology. As with most Enlightenment views, the benefits of science were not seen universally: Rousseau criticized the sciences for distancing man from nature and not operating to make people happier.[28]Science during the Enlightenment was dominated by scientific societies and academies, which had largely replaced universities as centres of scientific research and development. Societies and academies were also the backbone of the maturation of the scientific profession. Another important development was the popularization of science among an increasingly literate population. Philosophes introduced the public to many scientific theories, most notably through the Encyclopédie and the popularization of Newtonianism by Voltaire and Émilie du Châtelet. Some historians have marked the 18th century as a drab period in the history of science.[29]However, the century saw significant advancements in the practice of medicinemathematics and physics; the development of biological taxonomy; a new understanding of magnetism and electricity; and the maturation of chemistry as a discipline, which established the foundations of modern chemistry.

Scientific academies and societies grew out of the Scientific Revolution as the creators of scientific knowledge in contrast to the scholasticism of the university. During the Enlightenment, some societies created or retained links to universities, but contemporary sources distinguished universities from scientific societies by claiming that the university's utility was in the transmission of knowledge while societies functioned to create knowledge. As the role of universities in institutionalized science began to diminish, learned societies became the cornerstone of organized science. Official scientific societies were chartered by the state in order to provide technical expertise. Most societies were granted permission to oversee their own publications, control the election of new members and the administration of the society. After 1700, a tremendous number of official academies and societies were founded in Europe and by 1789 there were over seventy official scientific societies. In reference to this growth, Bernard de Fontenelle coined the term "the Age of Academies" to describe the 18th century.

The influence of science also began appearing more commonly in poetry and literature during the Enlightenment. Some poetry became infused with scientific metaphor and imagery, while other poems were written directly about scientific topics. Sir Richard Blackmore committed the Newtonian system to verse in Creation, a Philosophical Poem in Seven Books (1712). After Newton's death in 1727, poems were composed in his honour for decades. James Thomson (1700–1748) penned his "Poem to the Memory of Newton", which mourned the loss of Newton, but also praised his science and legacy.

“...Though diverse models for the scientific method are available, there is in general a continuous process that includes observations about the natural world. People are naturally inquisitive, so they often come up with questions about things they see or hear, and they often develop ideas or hypotheses about why things are the way they are. The best hypotheses lead to predictions that can be tested in various ways. The most conclusive testing of hypotheses comes from reasoning based on carefully controlled experimental data. Depending on how well additional tests match the predictions, the original hypothesis may require refinement, alteration, expansion or even rejection. If a particular hypothesis becomes very well supported, a general theory may be developed.

Although procedures vary from one field of inquiry to another, they are frequently the same from one to another. The process of the scientific method involves making conjectures (hypotheses), deriving predictions from them as logical consequences, and then carrying out experiments or empirical observations based on those predictions. A hypothesis is a conjecture, based on knowledge obtained while seeking answers to the question. The hypothesis might be very specific, or it might be broad. Scientists then test hypotheses by conducting experiments or studies. A scientific hypothesis must be falsifiable, implying that it is possible to identify a possible outcome of an experiment or observation that conflicts with predictions deduced from the hypothesis; otherwise, the hypothesis cannot be meaningfully tested.

The purpose of an experiment is to determine whether observations agree with or conflict with the predictions derived from a hypothesis. Experiments can take place anywhere from a garage to CERN's Large Hadron Collider. There are difficulties in a formulaic statement of method, however. Though the scientific method is often presented as a fixed sequence of steps, it represents rather a set of general principles. Not all steps take place in every scientific inquiry (nor to the same degree), and they are not always in the same order.

Eastern Religion and Comparative Religion should be checked out because the prevailing scientific model of the universe is a product of western civilization heavily influenced greatly by the Bible and European church history. 

Other Working Notes


From Eric Finke

First off, Einsteinian relativity says you get to Mars via the same route regardless of whether the Earth is fixed, Mars is, or both are moving. The only thing that matters is the relative motion. While I agree that creation need not be the physical center of the universe, there is no reason that it couldn’t be either. The Big Bang theory would tell you that there really isn’t a “center” anyway, so the best the standard model can do is say “I don’t know.” I haven’t done much work on Geocentricity since we last talked. This is more a collection of related thoughts putting holes in common scientific explanations. I’ve been thinking along these lines lately.

1. The sun is not a nuclear furnace.
2. The cosmic microwave background radiation observations are firm enough for me to say that the Earth is somewhere very close to exact center.
3. All the experiments I can find demonstrate the Earth could be motionless. Results depend on assumptions and interpretation.
These three, for me, kicked all of my college astronomy courses to the curb. Any one of them separately does away with the standard model of cosmology.
1. The sun is not a nuclear furnace. The temperature at the “surface”, the photosphere, is approximately 6000°C. The corona measures over 10 million degrees C.
""Since the sun's source of energy is at the center, on a simple level, we would expect the corona — the outermost layer — to be the coolest." SOHO is just one of several solar missions exploring this and other mysteries.” link. Their only real attempts at explaining this are to say that magnetic waves carry energy from the interior through the photosphere – somehow without being detected – or that extremely fast microjets of plasma are constantly breaking through and heating the corona. What they don’t admit is that since the corona entirely encompasses the sun, a 10-million degree oven would in a very short period of time heat the photosphere, only a few hundred kilometers away, to millions of degrees – especially with a supposed 27-million degree source at the center. Clearly they have no idea what is going on and are just trying to make the evidence fit their concept of the sun. That, and the fact that the solar wind speeds up with distance from the sun effectively sinks any known gravity-based theory of sun structure. If the sun is cooler on the inside than the outside, this upends our theory of star formation (which is disproven by the Charles Law anyway), galaxy formation, etc. Start over.

2. “But when you look at CMB map, you also see that the structure that is observed is in fact, in a weird way, correlated with the plane of the earth around the sun. Is this Copernicus coming back to haunt us? That’s crazy. We’re looking out at the whole universe. There’s no way there should be a correlation of structure with our motion of the earth around the sun — the plane of the earth around the sun — the ecliptic. That would say we are truly the center of the universe.” - Lawrence M. Krauss, July 2006 (he is really antagonistic toward Christians btw) The fact that there is any “structure” at all blows up the Big Bang (sorry, couldn’t resist). Further data gather has solidified Max Tegmark’s observation of statistical anisotropy in the CMB. Since the Big Bang’s ejection of hydrogen would have not created discernible structure, much less one that is aligned with both the plane of the ecliptic and the pole of Earth’s rotation, we need to look for another grand model. Refuting the CMB observations requires making up a new model of matter that is not observable or provable. Occam says nope.
Hartnett’s observations are also very interesting.

3. I’ve looked at the Michelson-Morley experiment a bit, and while it does seem to say what Sungenis suggests, I’d have to dig a lot deeper to understand this. The tilted telescope experiment is easier to understand and again demonstrates the Earth could be at rest. A fixed Earth would mean a very high angular momentum for the rest of the universe, but if stars are not nuclear furnaces and what we see is something other that what we’ve surmised, anything could be possible – perhaps some big electrical effect. Tilted telescope Data.

Basically, what I’ve come to is that we’ve made some wrong assumptions and piled centuries of further assumptions on top of them until we’re beyond the point of ridiculousness, but everyone is so indoctrinated they can’t find their way out. I can remember my professor in the 80s embarrassedly trying to explain to me the existence of dark matter. He knew it didn’t make sense, but I took him at his word. It had to be that way because otherwise you couldn’t explain the movement of the galaxies. We call it “fudging” when one changes the figures 2% to make the math fit. When you have to make up something undetectable to revise the figures by 95%, that’s just inventing nonsense. If they’re going to do that we might as well be claiming giant invisible pink flying elephants are making the wind. I’ve become convinced that’s happened in the astronomical community. If they're telling us the entire universe is made of stuff we’ll never be able to see because that’s the only way the math works, the math is the problem. The gravity model is obviously wrong.

The plasma model does away with the need to conjure up dark matter and dark energy. I don’t understand electromagnetics well, but I do understand that 10^37 times the the force of gravity is enough to get some real work done.

Disclaimer: I may be wrong about anything above. This is a work on progress. And by the way, I do not accept the “flat earth” theories. These are very easily disproven. Seen it with my own eyes.

From Bryce Self

The moral center of creation need not be the physical center or spatial locus. In the same way humans made in the image of God are not the strongest, fastest, or otherwise obviously superlative of all creatures. How have we managed to get vehicles to Mars, fly-by probes of other planets, based on a heliocentric model if earth is actually the center of the solar system? However, the billions of light years’ expanse of the universe is surely a piece of scientific mythology, along with the billions of years of chronological time supposedly involved. Even in the creation account, the language is phenomenological — accurately describing things as they appear from an earth-observer viewpoint This is the only viewpoint that we have, or that we presently have the capacity to understand. This limitation is required first by our creatureliness, and second by  our fallenness. It is for us fallen human creatures that the Scriptures were written, and for us in accordance with our common experience rather than for the rare few who have been privileged with theological or scientific sophistication. There is is no question but that earth and humanity are the focus, even if not the locus. The son of God became Man, an act not to be repeated for other races or stellar being that may exist (“He does not give help to angels”). Yes, we are certainly twice unique, not only by creation and by redemption, but thrice unique in that Jesus will rule the universe from David’s throne, in Jerusalem, in Israel, on earth.

Finally the glorious return of Jesus will be to Jerusalem.

The power of tradition is great. Quite possibly we need to acknowledge the mythology which captures the imaginations and can easily drowned out the ground truth and the archaeologists again and again.  The moral center of creation need not be the physical center or spatial locus. In the same way humans made in the image of God are not the strongest, fastest, or otherwise obviously superlative of all creatures. However, the billions of light years’ expanse of the universe is surely a piece of scientific mythology, along with the billions of years of chronological time supposedly involved.

Even in the creation account, the language is phenomenological — accurately describing things as they appear from an earth-observer viewpoint This is the only viewpoint that we have, or that we presently have the capacity to understand. This limitation is required first by our creatureliness, and second by  our fallenness. It is for us fallen human creatures that the Scriptures were written, and for us in accordance with our common experience rather than for the rare few who have been privileged with theological or scientific sophistication. There is is no question but that earth and humanity are the focus, even if not the locus. The son of God became Man on this planet, an act not to be repeated for other races or stellar being that may exist (“He does not give help to angels”). Yes, we are certainly quite unique, not only by creation and by redemption, but thrice unique in that Jesus will rule the universe from David’s throne, in Jerusalem, in Israel, on earth. --Bryce Self

Some Loose Ends

The Macrocosm and the Microcosm
We are Mostly Software not Hardware
More than Four Dimensions?
What is Revelation from God

The sun is an ancient symbol of Jesus the Light of the world. Malachi 4:2 for example says, “But to you who fear My name, The Sun of Righteousness shall arise, With healing in His wings...” The true church, which has no light of its own, shines feebly by reflecting the light of the sun. (Eclipses were of course of special interest to the ancients). A beautiful symbolic picture of Christ’s church militant and triumphant is foreshadowed in Song of Solomon 6:10, “Who is she who looks forth like the dawn, fair as the moon, bright as the sun, terrible as an army with banners?” The church as the “lesser light” rules the night and the greater light rules the day. (Genesis 1:16-18) New Jerusalem was seen in a great vision by the Apostle John in 95 AD which has led to speculation about certain mysterious objects in the sky which might be traveling in very orbits so that they show up locally in several thousand years. The plane of the Ecliptic is tilted 22.5 degrees from the earth’s rotational axis. Arbitrarily let’s assume NJ is in a synchronous orbit. This artificial moon, New Jerusalem, will evidently descend to earth over the present Jerusalem at the close of the Tribulation. Or at the close of the Millennium? No one will confuse the Lord Jesus (likened to the sun) with the moon, (likened to the church) during this seven year transition at the close of the present age.

“Behold, He is coming with the cloud, and every eye will see Him, even they who pierced Him. And all the tribes of the earth will mourn because of Him. Even so, Amen.

“I am the Alpha and the Omega, the Beginning and the End,” says the Lord, “who is and who was and who is to come, the Almighty.” (Revelation 1:7-8) 

The seven year Tribulation period following the Rapture, will involve the conversion of many millions of people living on earth who are reached primarily by the evangelistic work of 144,000 of “Christ’s Commandos.” These converts will be martyred and represent a separate class of believers from the church or from Israel.

See To Jew and Gentile and The Time of Harvest

Most Christians today apparently look forward to escaping from this planet (they assume) and going to some idyllic paradise where they no longer need to be involved with lost sinners, or anyone else “left behind” on the planet. Such a fanciful scenario can’t be found anywhere in the Bible! The return of Jesus will not focus on our deeds and accomplishments but on His worthiness as the heir of all things. Jesus Himself will evidently come and go during the Tribulation period while sojourning in New Jerusalem with us, His Bride. Are we not privileged to walk in step with Jesus in those days since we are destined to rule and reign with Him? I see the seven-year Tribulation period as a time of transition from the present grim state of affairs to the open Second Advent of Jesus with His church and the coming of the Kingdom of God right here on earth. These ideas did not originate with me: they were brought forth decades ago by Ray Stedman. I ask that these ideas be scrutinized ruthlessly, but I believe the time of the end is near. My ideas therefore probably require much “sanctified imagination” of course. From the outside looking in, New Jerusalem will reflect sunlight better than the earth’s moon which has an average albedo of only 0.12. If NJ is four-side and not gyroscopically locked in a fixed orientation, we might expect great dazzling beams of sunlight to be shining on the earth by night. It is possible that light from inside NJ might shine out through the 216 foot high outer wall. (The walls may be 216 feet thick, not high? In that case, the walls could be 1500 miles high.) We are not given many details about the interior of NJ, which we have suggested is multidimensional. There is an “exclusion zone” outside the city. See The Excluded Ones. Twelve gates suggests lots of traffic in and out. Presumably there will be controlled down to earth ventures in the service of the Commander-in-Chief.

A few additional details on City Center are given in Revelation 22:

“But I saw no temple in it, for the Lord God Almighty and the Lamb are its temple. The city had no need of the sun or of the moon to shine in it, for the glory of God illuminated it. The Lamb is its light. And the nations of those who are saved shall walk in its light, and the kings of the earth bring their glory and honor into it. Its gates shall not be shut at all by day (there shall be no night there). And they shall bring the glory and the honor of the nations into it. But there shall by no means enter it anything that defiles, or causes an abomination or a lie, but only those who are written in the Lamb’s Book of Life.

And he showed me a pure river of water of life, clear as crystal, proceeding from the throne of God and of the Lamb. In the middle of its street, and on either side of the river, was the tree of life, which bore twelve fruits, each tree yielding its fruit every month. The leaves of the tree were for the healing of the nations. And there shall be no more curse, but the throne of God and of the Lamb shall be in it, and His servants shall serve Him. They shall see His face, and His name shall be on their foreheads. There shall be no night there: They need no lamp nor light of the sun, for the Lord God gives them light. And they shall reign forever and ever.” (Revelation 21:22 - 22:5)

The time frame for the sequence of events in the Book of Revelation after 4:1 is not totally linear and sequential--since John, the observer, was still in his old mortal body when he was given his tour of “heaven.” The reader of Revelation is presently trapped in linear, historical time. Indeed, he or she is constrained to live life one day at a time "down here" from birth to death. The record books of history list our DOB and our DOD. Not so the vantage point of heaven runs on very different clocks. God Himself is the “high and lofty one who inhabits eternity.” (Isaiah 57:15) Past, present and future are eternally “now” to our Lord. God does act within time and outside of time—both. He reveals Himself progressively in history from creation to the Second Advent. It is our present body with several internal clicks, rhythms and cycles that lock us into linear, historical calendars. Our new bodies, already built for us to occupy when we die, run according to very different clocks. 

The Resurrection Body is explained in 2 Corinthians 5.

There is no need for a follower of Jesus to view eternal realities in the heavenly places strictly through the lens of earth-bound lenses. Pay attention to verb tenses in the New Testament! For example, those who know Jesus have already come to New Jerusalem. Looking out through my present old eyes I can not see the splendor just behind the temporal, visible realm. 

“For you have not come to the mountain that may be touched and that burned with fire, and to blackness and darkness and tempest, and the sound of a trumpet and the voice of words, so that those who heard it begged that the word should not be spoken to them anymore. (For they could not endure what was commanded: “And if so much as a beast touches the mountain, it shall be stoned or shot with an arrow.” And so terrifying was the sight that Moses said, “I am exceedingly afraid and trembling.”)

But you have come to Mount Zion and to the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem, to an innumerable company of angels, to the general assembly and church of the firstborn who are registered in heaven, to God the Judge of all, to the spirits of just men made perfect, to Jesus the Mediator of the new covenant, and to the blood of sprinkling that speaks better things than that of Abel.

See that you do not refuse Him who speaks. For if they did not escape who refused Him who spoke on earth, much more shall we not escape if we turn away from Him who speaks from heaven, whose voice then shook the earth; but now He has promised, saying, “Yet once more I shake not only the earth, but also heaven.” Now this, “Yet once more,” indicates the removal of those things that are being shaken, as of things that are made, that the things which cannot be shaken may remain.

Therefore, since we are receiving a kingdom which cannot be shaken, let us have grace, by which we may serve God acceptably with reverence and godly fear. For our God is a consuming fire.” (Hebrews 12:18-29)

The crucifixion alone centers everything in the cosmos surely?


No Ultimate Temple Building in New Jerusalem

But I saw no temple in it, for the Lord God Almighty and the Lamb are its temple.” (Revelation 21:9-21)

A few additional details on City Center are given in Revelation 22:

“But I saw no temple in it, for the Lord God Almighty and the Lamb are its temple. The city had no need of the sun or of the moon to shine in it, for the glory of God illuminated it. The Lamb is its light. And the nations of those who are saved shall walk in its light, and the kings of the earth bring their glory and honor into it. Its gates shall not be shut at all by day (there shall be no night there). And they shall bring the glory and the honor of the nations into it. But there shall by no means enter it anything that defiles, or causes an abomination or a lie, but only those who are written in the Lamb’s Book of Life.

And he showed me a pure river of water of life, clear as crystal, proceeding from the throne of God and of the Lamb. In the middle of its street, and on either side of the river, was the tree of life, which bore twelve fruits, each tree yielding its fruit every month. The leaves of the tree were for the healing of the nations. And there shall be no more curse, but the throne of God and of the Lamb shall be in it, and His servants shall serve Him. They shall see His face, and His name shall be on their foreheads. There shall be no night there: They need no lamp nor light of the sun, for the Lord God gives them light. And they shall reign forever and ever.” (Revelation 21:22 - 22:5)

The time frame for the sequence of events in the Book of Revelation after 4:1 is not totally linear and sequential--since John, the observer, was still in his old mortal body when he was given his tour of “heaven.” The reader of Revelation is presently trapped in linear, historical time. Indeed, he or she is constrained to live life one day at a time "down here" from birth to death. The record books of history list our DOB and our DOD. Not so the vantage point of heaven runs on very different clocks. God Himself is the “high and lofty one who inhabits eternity.” (Isaiah 57:15) Past, present and future are eternally “now” to our Lord. God does act within time and outside of time—both. He reveals Himself progressively in history from creation to the Second Advent. It is our present body with several internal clicks, rhythms and cycles that lock us into linear, historical calendars. Our new bodies, already built for us to occupy when we die, run according to very different clocks. 

The Resurrection Body is explained in 2 Corinthians 5.

There is no need for a follower of Jesus to view eternal realities in the heavenly places strictly through the lens of earth-bound lenses. Pay attention to verb tenses in the New Testament! For example, those who know Jesus have already come to New Jerusalem. Looking out through my present old eyes I can not see the splendor just behind the temporal, visible realm. 

“For you have not come to the mountain that may be touched and that burned with fire, and to blackness and darkness and tempest, and the sound of a trumpet and the voice of words, so that those who heard it begged that the word should not be spoken to them anymore. (For they could not endure what was commanded: “And if so much as a beast touches the mountain, it shall be stoned or shot with an arrow.” And so terrifying was the sight that Moses said, “I am exceedingly afraid and trembling.”)

But you have come to Mount Zion and to the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem, to an innumerable company of angels, to the general assembly and church of the firstborn who are registered in heaven, to God the Judge of all, to the spirits of just men made perfect, to Jesus the Mediator of the new covenant, and to the blood of sprinkling that speaks better things than that of Abel.

See that you do not refuse Him who speaks. For if they did not escape who refused Him who spoke on earth, much more shall we not escape if we turn away from Him who speaks from heaven, whose voice then shook the earth; but now He has promised, saying, “Yet once more I shake not only the earth, but also heaven.” Now this, “Yet once more,” indicates the removal of those things that are being shaken, as of things that are made, that the things which cannot be shaken may remain.

Therefore, since we are receiving a kingdom which cannot be shaken, let us have grace, by which we may serve God acceptably with reverence and godly fear. For our God is a consuming fire.” (Hebrews 12:18-29)

Music

Africa song, (Sihayamba) We Are Marching
Keith Green, To Obey is Better than Sacrifice
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Originated February 14, 2020. September 7, 2020. February 13, 2021