Ten Plagues of Egypt

Recently J.D. Farag noted that the rapture was like the Exodus of the Jews from Egypt.  It took ten plagues for Pharaoh to let the people go. But the children of Israel did not want to go! The plagues were for them as well—-to make them willing to go!

The Corona Virus Lockdown could be Plague #1? Nine more to go?

 Jesus Christ in Complete Control.

Egypt = a type of the world 
Pharaoh = a type of the god of this world
Moses = a type of Christ 

Assyria = "Lawlessness"
Babylon= "Religious Confusion" (balal)

God Renews His Promise to Israel

1 Then the LORD said to Moses, “Now you shall see what I will do to Pharaoh. For with a strong hand he will let the people go and with a strong hand he will drive them out of his land."

2 And God spoke to Moses and said to him: “I am the LORD.
3 “I appeared to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, as God Almighty, but by My name LORD I was not known to them.
4 “I have also established My covenant with them, to give them the land of Canaan, the land of their pilgrimage, in which they were strangers.
5 “And I have also heard the groaning of the children of Israel whom the Egyptians keep in bondage, and I have remembered My covenant.
“Therefore say to the children of Israel: ‘I am the LORD; I will bring you out from under the burdens of the Egyptians, I will rescue you from their bondage, and I will redeem you with an outstretched arm and with great judgments.
7 ‘I will take you as My people, and I will be your God. Then you shall know that I am the LORD your God who brings you out from under the burdens of the Egyptians.
8 ‘And I will bring you into the land which I swore to give to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob; and I will give it to you as a heritage: I am the LORD.’ ”
9 So Moses spoke thus to the children of Israel; but they did not heed Moses, because of anguish of spirit and cruel bondage.
10  And the LORD spoke to Moses, saying,
11 “Go in, tell Pharaoh king of Egypt to let the children of Israel go out of his land.”
12  And Moses spoke before the LORD, saying, “The children of Israel have not heeded me. How then shall Pharaoh heed me, for I am of uncircumcised lips?”
13 Then the LORD spoke to Moses and Aaron, and gave them a command for the children of Israel and for Pharaoh king of Egypt, to bring the children of Israel out of the land of Egypt.

Moses Before Pharaoh

1  So the LORD said to Moses: “See, I have made you as God to Pharaoh, and Aaron your brother shall be your prophet.
2 “You shall speak all that I command you. And Aaron your brother shall tell Pharaoh to send the children of Israel out of his land.
3 “And I will harden Pharaoh’s heart, and multiply My signs and My wonders in the land of Egypt.
4 “But Pharaoh will not heed you, so that I may lay My hand on Egypt and bring My armies and My people, the children of Israel, out of the land of Egypt by great judgments.
5 “And the Egyptians shall know that I am the LORD, when I stretch out My hand on Egypt and bring out the children of Israel from among them.”
6  Then Moses and Aaron did so; just as the LORD commanded them, so they did.
7 And Moses was eighty years old and Aaron eighty-three years old when they spoke to Pharaoh.

Aaron’s Miraculous Rod


8  Then the LORD spoke to Moses and Aaron, saying,
9 “When Pharaoh speaks to you, saying, ‘Show a miracle for yourselves,’ then you shall say to Aaron, ‘Take your rod and cast it before Pharaoh, and let it become a serpent.’ ”
10 So Moses and Aaron went in to Pharaoh, and they did so, just as the LORD commanded. And Aaron cast down his rod before Pharaoh and before his servants, and it became a serpent.
11  But Pharaoh also called the wise men and the sorcerers; so the magicians of Egypt, they also did in like manner with their enchantments.
12 For every man threw down his rod, and they became serpents. But Aaron’s rod swallowed up their rods.
13 And Pharaoh’s heart grew hard, and he did not heed them, as the LORD had said.
The First Plague: Waters Become Blood
14 So the LORD said to Moses: “Pharaoh’s heart is hard; he refuses to let the people go.
15 “Go to Pharaoh in the morning, when he goes out to the water, and you shall stand by the river’s bank to meet him; and the rod which was turned to a serpent you shall take in your hand.
16 “And you shall say to him, ‘The LORD God of the Hebrews has sent me to you, saying, “Let My people go, that they may serve Me in the wilderness”; but indeed, until now you would not hear!
17 ‘Thus says the LORD: “By this you shall know that I am the LORD. Behold, I will strike the waters which are in the river with the rod that is in my hand, and they shall be turned to blood.
18 “And the fish that are in the river shall die, the river shall stink, and the Egyptians will loathe to drink the water of the river.” ’ ”
19 Then the LORD spoke to Moses, “Say to Aaron, ‘Take your rod and stretch out your hand over the waters of Egypt, over their streams, over their rivers, over their ponds, and over all their pools of water, that they may become blood. And there shall be blood throughout all the land of Egypt, both in buckets of wood and pitchers of stone.’ ”
20 And Moses and Aaron did so, just as the LORD commanded. So he lifted up the rod and struck the waters that were in the river, in the sight of Pharaoh and in the sight of his servants. And all the waters that were in the river were turned to blood.
21 The fish that were in the river died, the river stank, and the Egyptians could not drink the water of the river. So there was blood throughout all the land of Egypt.
22 Then the magicians of Egypt did so with their enchantments; and Pharaoh’s heart grew hard, and he did not heed them, as the Lord had said.
23 And Pharaoh turned and went into his house. Neither was his heart moved by this.
24 So all the Egyptians dug all around the river for water to drink, because they could not drink the water of the river.
25 And seven days passed after the LORD had struck the river.
 
 
The Second Plague: Frogs

 And the LORD spoke to Moses, “Go to Pharaoh and say to him, ‘Thus says the LORD: “Let My people go, that they may serve Me.
2 “But if you refuse to let them go, behold, I will smite all your territory with frogs.
3 “So the river shall bring forth frogs abundantly, which shall go up and come into your house, into your bedroom, on your bed, into the houses of your servants, on your people, into your ovens, and into your kneading bowls.
4 “And the frogs shall come up on you, on your people, and on all your servants.” ’ ”
5  Then the LORD spoke to Moses, “Say to Aaron, ‘Stretch out your hand with your rod over the streams, over the rivers, and over the ponds, and cause frogs to come up on the land of Egypt.’ ”
6 So Aaron stretched out his hand over the waters of Egypt, and the frogs came up and covered the land of Egypt.
7 And the magicians did so with their enchantments, and brought up frogs on the land of Egypt.
8  Then Pharaoh called for Moses and Aaron, and said, “Entreat the LORD that He may take away the frogs from me and from my people; and I will let the people go, that they may sacrifice to the LORD.”
9 And Moses said to Pharaoh, “Accept the honor of saying when I shall intercede for you, for your servants, and for your people, to destroy the frogs from you and your houses, that they may remain in the river only.”
10  So he said, “Tomorrow.” And he said, “Let it be according to your word, that you may know that there is no one like the LORD our God.
11 “And the frogs shall depart from you, from your houses, from your servants, and from your people. They shall remain in the river only.”
12 Then Moses and Aaron went out from Pharaoh. And Moses cried out to the Lord concerning the frogs which He had brought against Pharaoh.
13 So the LORD did according to the word of Moses. And the frogs died out of the houses, out of the courtyards, and out of the fields.
14 They gathered them together in heaps, and the land stank.
15 But when Pharaoh saw that there was relief, he hardened his heart and did not heed them, as the LORD had said.

The Third Plague: Lice


16 our colleague So the LORD said to Moses, “Say to Aaron, ‘Stretch out your rod, and strike the dust of the land, so that it may become lice throughout all the land of Egypt.’ ”
17 And they did so. For Aaron stretched out his hand with his rod and struck the dust of the earth, and it became lice on man and beast. All the dust of the land became lice throughout all the land of Egypt.
18 our colleague Now the magicians so worked with their enchantments to bring forth lice, but they could not. So there were lice on man and beast.
19 Then the magicians said to Pharaoh, “This is the finger of God.” But Pharaoh’s heart grew hard, and he did not heed them, just as the LORD had said.

The Fourth Plague: Flies


20 our colleague And the LORD said to Moses, “Rise early in the morning and stand before Pharaoh as he comes out to the water. Then say to him, ‘Thus says the LORD: “Let My people go, that they may serve Me.
21 “Or else, if you will not let My people go, behold, I will send swarms of flies on you and your servants, on your people and into your houses. The houses of the Egyptians shall be full of swarms of flies, and also the ground on which they stand.
22 “And in that day I will set apart the land of Goshen, in which My people dwell, that no swarms of flies shall be there, in order that you may know that I am the LORD in the midst of the land.
23 “I will make a difference between My people and your people. Tomorrow this sign shall be.” ’ ”
24 And the LORD did so. Thick swarms of flies came into the house of Pharaoh, into his servants’ houses, and into all the land of Egypt. The land was corrupted because of the swarms of flies.
25 our colleague Then Pharaoh called for Moses and Aaron, and said, “Go, sacrifice to your God in the land.”
26 our colleague And Moses said, “It is not right to do so, for we would be sacrificing the abomination of the Egyptians to the LORD our God. If we sacrifice the abomination of the Egyptians before their eyes, then will they not stone us?
27 “We will go three days’ journey into the wilderness and sacrifice to the LORD our God as He will command us.”
28 our colleague So Pharaoh said, “I will let you go, that you may sacrifice to the LORD your God in the wilderness; only you shall not go very far away. Intercede for me.”
29 our colleague Then Moses said, “Indeed I am going out from you, and I will entreat the LORD, that the swarms of flies may depart tomorrow from Pharaoh, from his servants, and from his people. But let Pharaoh not deal deceitfully anymore in not letting the people go to sacrifice to the LORD.”
30 our colleague So Moses went out from Pharaoh and entreated the LORD.
31 And the LORD did according to the word of Moses; He removed the swarms of flies from Pharaoh, from his servants, and from his people. Not one remained.
32 But Pharaoh hardened his heart at this time also; neither would he let the people go.
 
 

The Fifth Plague: Livestock Diseased


1 our colleague Then the LORD said to Moses, “Go in to Pharaoh and tell him, ‘Thus says the Lord God of the Hebrews: “Let My people go, that they may serve Me.
2 “For if you refuse to let them go, and still hold them,
3 “behold, the hand of the LORD will be on your cattle in the field, on the horses, on the donkeys, on the camels, on the oxen, and on the sheep—a very severe pestilence.
4 “And the LORD will make a difference between the livestock of Israel and the livestock of Egypt. So nothing shall die of all that belongs to the children of Israel.” ’ ”
5 Then the LORD appointed a set time, saying, “Tomorrow the LORD will do this thing in the land.”
6 our colleague So the LORD did this thing on the next day, and all the livestock of Egypt died; but of the livestock of the children of Israel, not one died.
7 Then Pharaoh sent, and indeed, not even one of the livestock of the Israelites was dead. But the heart of Pharaoh became hard, and he did not let the people go.

The Sixth Plague: Boils


8 our colleague So the LORD said to Moses and Aaron, “Take for yourselves handfuls of ashes from a furnace, and let Moses scatter it toward the heavens in the sight of Pharaoh.
9 “And it will become fine dust in all the land of Egypt, and it will cause boils that break out in sores on man and beast throughout all the land of Egypt.”
10 Then they took ashes from the furnace and stood before Pharaoh, and Moses scattered them toward heaven. And they caused boils that break out in sores on man and beast.
11 And the magicians could not stand before Moses because of the boils, for the boils were on the magicians and on all the Egyptians.
12 But the LORD hardened the heart of Pharaoh; and he did not heed them, just as the LORD had spoken to Moses.

The Seventh Plague: Hail


13 our colleague Then the LORD said to Moses, “Rise early in the morning and stand before Pharaoh, and say to him, ‘Thus says the LORD God of the Hebrews: “Let My people go, that they may serve Me,
14 “for at this time I will send all My plagues to your very heart, and on your servants and on your people, that you may know that there is none like Me in all the earth.
15 “Now if I had stretched out My hand and struck you and your people with pestilence, then you would have been cut off from the earth.
16 “But indeed for this purpose I have raised you up, that I may show My power in you, and that My name may be declared in all the earth.
17 “As yet you exalt yourself against My people in that you will not let them go.
18 “Behold, tomorrow about this time I will cause very heavy hail to rain down, such as has not been in Egypt since its founding until now.
19 “Therefore send now and gather your livestock and all that you have in the field, for the hail shall come down on every man and every animal which is found in the field and is not brought home; and they shall die.” ’ ”
20 He who feared the word of the LORD among the servants of Pharaoh made his servants and his livestock flee to the houses.
21 But he who did not regard the word of the LORD left his servants and his livestock in the field.
22 our colleague Then the LORD said to Moses, “Stretch out your hand toward heaven, that there may be hail in all the land of Egypt—on man, on beast, and on every herb of the field, throughout the land of Egypt.”
23 And Moses stretched out his rod toward heaven; and the LORD sent thunder and hail, and fire darted to the ground. And the Lord rained hail on the land of Egypt.
24 So there was hail, and fire mingled with the hail, so very heavy that there was none like it in all the land of Egypt since it became a nation.
25 And the hail struck throughout the whole land of Egypt, all that was in the field, both man and beast; and the hail struck every herb of the field and broke every tree of the field.
26 Only in the land of Goshen, where the children of Israel were, there was no hail.
27 our colleague And Pharaoh sent and called for Moses and Aaron, and said to them, “I have sinned this time. The LORD is righteous, and my people and I are wicked.
28 “Entreat the LORD, that there may be no more mighty thundering and hail, for it is enough. I will let you go, and you shall stay no longer.”
29 our colleague So Moses said to him, “As soon as I have gone out of the city, I will spread out my hands to the LORD; the thunder will cease, and there will be no more hail, that you may know that the earth is the LORD’s.
30 “But as for you and your servants, I know that you will not yet fear the LORD God.”
31 our colleague Now the flax and the barley were struck, for the barley was in the head and the flax was in bud.
32 But the wheat and the spelt were not struck, for they are late crops.
33 our colleague So Moses went out of the city from Pharaoh and spread out his hands to the LORD; then the thunder and the hail ceased, and the rain was not poured on the earth.
34 And when Pharaoh saw that the rain, the hail, and the thunder had ceased, he sinned yet more; and he hardened his heart, he and his servants.
35 So the heart of Pharaoh was hard; neither would he let the children of Israel go, as the LORD had spoken by Moses.
 
 
The Eighth Plague: Locusts

1 our colleague Now the LORD said to Moses, “Go in to Pharaoh; for I have hardened his heart and the hearts of his servants, that I may show these signs of Mine before him,
2 “and that you may tell in the hearing of your son and your son’s son the mighty things I have done in Egypt, and My signs which I have done among them, that you may know that I am the LORD.”
3 our colleague So Moses and Aaron came in to Pharaoh and said to him, “Thus says the LORD God of the Hebrews: ‘How long will you refuse to humble yourself before Me? Let My people go, that they may serve Me.
4 ‘Or else, if you refuse to let My people go, behold, tomorrow I will bring locusts into your territory.
5 ‘And they shall cover the face of the earth, so that no one will be able to see the earth; and they shall eat the residue of what is left, which remains to you from the hail, and they shall eat every tree which grows up for you out of the field.
6 ‘They shall fill your houses, the houses of all your servants, and the houses of all the Egyptians—which neither your fathers nor your fathers’ fathers have seen, since the day that they were on the earth to this day.’ ” And he turned and went out from Pharaoh.
7 our colleague Then Pharaoh’s servants said to him, “How long shall this man be a snare to us? Let the men go, that they may serve the LORD their God. Do you not yet know that Egypt is destroyed?”
8 our colleague So Moses and Aaron were brought again to Pharaoh, and he said to them, “Go, serve the LORD your God. Who are the ones that are going?”
9 our colleague And Moses said, “We will go with our young and our old; with our sons and our daughters, with our flocks and our herds we will go, for we must hold a feast to the LORD.”
10 our colleague Then he said to them, “The LORD had better be with you when I let you and your little ones go! Beware, for evil is ahead of you.
11 “Not so! Go now, you who are men, and serve the LORD, for that is what you desired.” And they were driven out from Pharaoh’s presence.
12 our colleague Then the LORD said to Moses, “Stretch out your hand over the land of Egypt for the locusts, that they may come upon the land of Egypt, and eat every herb of the land—all that the hail has left.”
13 So Moses stretched out his rod over the land of Egypt, and the LORD brought an east wind on the land all that day and all that night. When it was morning, the east wind brought the locusts.
14 And the locusts went up over all the land of Egypt and rested on all the territory of Egypt. They were very severe; previously there had been no such locusts as they, nor shall there be such after them.
15 For they covered the face of the whole earth, so that the land was darkened; and they ate every herb of the land and all the fruit of the trees which the hail had left. So there remained nothing green on the trees or on the plants of the field throughout all the land of Egypt.
16 our colleague Then Pharaoh called for Moses and Aaron in haste, and said, “I have sinned against the LORD your God and against you.
17 “Now therefore, please forgive my sin only this once, and entreat the LORD your God, that He may take away from me this death only.”
18 So he went out from Pharaoh and entreated the LORD.
19 And the LORD turned a very strong west wind, which took the locusts away and blew them into the Red Sea. There remained not one locust in all the territory of Egypt.
20 But the LORD hardened Pharaoh’s heart, and he did not let the children of Israel go.
The Ninth Plague: Darkness
21 our colleague Then the LORD said to Moses, “Stretch out your hand toward heaven, that there may be darkness over the land of Egypt, darkness which may even be felt.”
22 So Moses stretched out his hand toward heaven, and there was thick darkness in all the land of Egypt three days.
23 They did not see one another; nor did anyone rise from his place for three days. But all the children of Israel had light in their dwellings.
24 our colleague Then Pharaoh called to Moses and said, “Go, serve the LORD; only let your flocks and your herds be kept back. Let your little ones also go with you.”
25 our colleague But Moses said, “You must also give us sacrifices and burnt offerings, that we may sacrifice to the LORD our God.
26 “Our livestock also shall go with us; not a hoof shall be left behind. For we must take some of them to serve the LORD our God, and even we do not know with what we must serve the LORD until we arrive there.”
27 our colleague But the LORD hardened Pharaoh’s heart, and he would not let them go.
28 Then Pharaoh said to him, “Get away from me! Take heed to yourself and see my face no more! For in the day you see my face you shall die!”
29 our colleague So Moses said, “You have spoken well. I will never see your face again.”
 
 
Death of the Firstborn Announced
1 our colleague And the LORD said to Moses, “I will bring one more plague on Pharaoh and on Egypt. Afterward he will let you go from here. When he lets you go, he will surely drive you out of here altogether.
2 “Speak now in the hearing of the people, and let every man ask from his neighbor and every woman from her neighbor, articles of silver and articles of gold.”
3 And the LORD gave the people favor in the sight of the Egyptians. Moreover the man Moses was very great in the land of Egypt, in the sight of Pharaoh’s servants and in the sight of the people.
4 our colleague Then Moses said, “Thus says the LORD: ‘About midnight I will go out into the midst of Egypt;
5 ‘and all the firstborn in the land of Egypt shall die, from the firstborn of Pharaoh who sits on his throne, even to the firstborn of the female servant who is behind the handmill, and all the firstborn of the animals.
6 ‘Then there shall be a great cry throughout all the land of Egypt, such as was not like it before, nor shall be like it again.
7 ‘But against none of the children of Israel shall a dog move its tongue, against man or beast, that you may know that the LORD does make a difference between the Egyptians and Israel.’
8 “And all these your servants shall come down to me and bow down to me, saying, ‘Get out, and all the people who follow you!’ After that I will go out.” Then he went out from Pharaoh in great anger.
9 our colleague But the LORD said to Moses, “Pharaoh will not heed you, so that My wonders may be multiplied in the land of Egypt.”
10 So Moses and Aaron did all these wonders before Pharaoh; and the LORD hardened Pharaoh’s heart, and he did not let the children of Israel go out of his land.
 
 
The Passover Instituted

1 our colleague Now the LORD spoke to Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt, saying,
2 “This month shall be your beginning of months; it shall be the first month of the year to you.
3 “Speak to all the congregation of Israel, saying: ‘On the tenth of this month every man shall take for himself a lamb, according to the house of his father, a lamb for a household.
4 ‘And if the household is too small for the lamb, let him and his neighbor next to his house take it according to the number of the persons; according to each man’s need you shall make your count for the lamb.
5 ‘Your lamb shall be without blemish, a male of the first year. You may take it from the sheep or from the goats.
6 ‘Now you shall keep it until the fourteenth day of the same month. Then the whole assembly of the congregation of Israel shall kill it at twilight.
7 ‘And they shall take some of the blood and put it on the two doorposts and on the lintel of the houses where they eat it.
8 ‘Then they shall eat the flesh on that night; roasted in fire, with unleavened bread and with bitter herbs they shall eat it.
9 ‘Do not eat it raw, nor boiled at all with water, but roasted in fire—its head with its legs and its entrails.
10 ‘You shall let none of it remain until morning, and what remains of it until morning you shall burn with fire.
11 ‘And thus you shall eat it: with a belt on your waist, your sandals on your feet, and your staff in your hand. So you shall eat it in haste. It is the LORD’s Passover.
12 our colleague ‘For I will pass through the land of Egypt on that night, and will strike all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both man and beast; and against all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgment: I am the LORD.
13 ‘Now the blood shall be a sign for you on the houses where you are. And when I see the blood, I will pass over you; and the plague shall not be on you to destroy you when I strike the land of Egypt.
14 our colleague ‘So this day shall be to you a memorial; and you shall keep it as a feast to the Lord throughout your generations. You shall keep it as a feast by an everlasting ordinance.
15 ‘Seven days you shall eat unleavened bread. On the first day you shall remove leaven from your houses. For whoever eats leavened bread from the first day until the seventh day, that person shall be cut off from Israel.
16 ‘On the first day there shall be a holy convocation, and on the seventh day there shall be a holy convocation for you. No manner of work shall be done on them; but that which everyone must eat—that only may be prepared by you.
17 ‘So you shall observe the Feast of Unleavened Bread, for on this same day I will have brought your armies out of the land of Egypt. Therefore you shall observe this day throughout your generations as an everlasting ordinance.
18 ‘In the first month, on the fourteenth day of the month at evening, you shall eat unleavened bread, until the twenty-first day of the month at evening.
19 ‘For seven days no leaven shall be found in your houses, since whoever eats what is leavened, that same person shall be cut off from the congregation of Israel, whether he is a stranger or a native of the land.
20 ‘You shall eat nothing leavened; in all your dwellings you shall eat unleavened bread.’ ”
21 our colleague Then Moses called for all the elders of Israel and said to them, “Pick out and take lambs for yourselves according to your families, and kill the Passover lamb.
22 “And you shall take a bunch of hyssop, dip it in the blood that is in the basin, and strike the lintel and the two doorposts with the blood that is in the basin. And none of you shall go out of the door of his house until morning.
23 “For the LORD will pass through to strike the Egyptians; and when He sees the blood on the lintel and on the two doorposts, the Lord will pass over the door and not allow the destroyer to come into your houses to strike you.
24 “And you shall observe this thing as an ordinance for you and your sons forever.
25 “It will come to pass when you come to the land which the LORD will give you, just as He promised, that you shall keep this service.
26 “And it shall be, when your children say to you, ‘What do you mean by this service?’
27 “that you shall say, ‘It is the Passover sacrifice of the LORD, who passed over the houses of the children of Israel in Egypt when He struck the Egyptians and delivered our households.’ ” So the people bowed their heads and worshiped.
28 Then the children of Israel went away and did so; just as the LORD had commanded Moses and Aaron, so they did.

The Tenth Plague: Death of the Firstborn


29 our colleague And it came to pass at midnight that the LORD struck all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of Pharaoh who sat on his throne to the firstborn of the captive who was in the dungeon, and all the firstborn of livestock.
30 So Pharaoh rose in the night, he, all his servants, and all the Egyptians; and there was a great cry in Egypt, for there was not a house where there was not one dead.

The Exodus


31 our colleague Then he called for Moses and Aaron by night, and said, “Rise, go out from among my people, both you and the children of Israel. And go, serve the LORD as you have said.
32 “Also take your flocks and your herds, as you have said, and be gone; and bless me also.”
33 our colleague And the Egyptians urged the people, that they might send them out of the land in haste. For they said, “We shall all be dead.”
34 So the people took their dough before it was leavened, having their kneading bowls bound up in their clothes on their shoulders.
35 Now the children of Israel had done according to the word of Moses, and they had asked from the Egyptians articles of silver, articles of gold, and clothing.
36 And the LORD had given the people favor in the sight of the Egyptians, so that they granted them what they requested. Thus they plundered the Egyptians.
37 our colleague Then the children of Israel journeyed from Rameses to Succoth, about six hundred thousand men on foot, besides children.
38 A mixed multitude went up with them also, and flocks and herds—a great deal of livestock.
39 And they baked unleavened cakes of the dough which they had brought out of Egypt; for it was not leavened, because they were driven out of Egypt and could not wait, nor had they prepared provisions for themselves.
40 our colleague Now the sojourn of the children of Israel who lived in Egypt was four hundred and thirty years.
41 And it came to pass at the end of the four hundred and thirty years—on that very same day—it came to pass that all the armies of the LORD went out from the land of Egypt.
42 It is a night of solemn observance to the LORD for bringing them out of the land of Egypt. This is that night of the LORD, a solemn observance for all the children of Israel throughout their generations.

Passover Regulations


43 our colleague And the LORD said to Moses and Aaron, “This is the ordinance of the Passover: No foreigner shall eat it.
44 “But every man’s servant who is bought for money, when you have circumcised him, then he may eat it.
45 “A sojourner and a hired servant shall not eat it.
46 “In one house it shall be eaten; you shall not carry any of the flesh outside the house, nor shall you break one of its bones.
47 “All the congregation of Israel shall keep it.
48 “And when a stranger dwells with you and wants to keep the Passover to the LORD, let all his males be circumcised, and then let him come near and keep it; and he shall be as a native of the land. For no uncircumcised person shall eat it.
49 “One law shall be for the native-born and for the stranger who dwells among you.”
50 our colleague Thus all the children of Israel did; as the LORD commanded Moses and Aaron, so they did.
51 And it came to pass, on that very same day, that the LORD brought the children of Israel out of the land of Egypt according to their armies.
 
 (Exodus 7-12 NKJV) 

It is said by one school of theology that the plagues sent by God upon the Egyptians were aimed at many of their gods. The purpose was to show how impotent the gods of Egypt were and to force the Pharaoh to let God’s people go. In ten separate cosmic events God humbled Pharaoh AND simultaneously persuaded the children of Israel that they ought to follow their leader Moses, who was eminently qualified to save them.

Were the specific gods of pagan Egypt targeted. Some think not. But this model has been deeply embedded in the evangelical wing of the church of Jesus Christ. For the sake of completeness here is that view:

1. Exodus 7:14-24 describes how the river Nile was changed into blood, also affecting the streams, canals, ponds and all the reservoirs. The fish died and the water was undrinkable. This, the first plague, was directed at Apis, the god of the Nile, Isis, the goddess of the Nile, and Khnum, guardian of the Nile. The Egyptians believed the Nile was the bloodstream of Osiris, who was reborn each year when the river flooded.

2. The second plague was delivered seven days later, and is described in Exodus 8:1-15. The plague of frogs (which came from the Nile), was a judgment against Heqet, the frog-headed goddess of birth. Frogs were thought to be sacred. After the frogs died, their stinking bodies were heaped up in offensive piles all through the land (Exodus 8:13–14).

3. The third plague of gnats was a judgment on Set, the god of the desert. Unlike the previous plagues, the Egyptian magicians were unable to duplicate this one and said to Pharaoh, “This is the finger of God” (Exodus 8:19).

4. Exodus 8:20-32 describes how the fourth plague, swarms of flies, afflicted only the Egyptians. God’s people, who lived in Goshen, were excluded. This was a judgment on Uatchit, the fly god.

5. The fifth plague, the death of livestock, was a judgment on the goddess Hathor and the god Apis, who were both depicted as cattle. Exodus 9:1-7 describes how God’s people were unaffected.

6. The sixth plague, boils, as described in Exodus 9:8-12, was a judgment against Sekhmet, Sunu, and Isis who were ascribed with powers to prevent disease.

7. There followed a spectacular and dramatic seventh plague, of thunder, hail and lightning. This plague was directed against Nut, the sky goddess, Osiris, the crop fertility god, and Set, the storm god. Exodus 9:13-35 describes the utter devastation of crops, men and beasts, and trees. But no hail fell in the land of Goshen, where the Israelites were. God wasn’t done with Nut (the sky goddess), Osiris (the crop fertility god) and Set (the storm god).

8. Exodus 10:12-20 describes how a plague of locusts devoured the remaining crops of wheat and rye, ensuring there would be no harvest in Egypt that year.

9.The ninth plague is described in Exodus 10:21-29. The three days of darkness was aimed at the sun-god, Ra (or Re), one of the chief deities of Egypt. Ra was symbolized by Pharaoh himself.

10. Exodus chapter 11 describes the tenth and last plague, the death of the firstborn Egyptian males, which was a judgment on Isis, the protector of children. This was the ultimate disaster since all the plans and dreams of a father were bound up in his firstborn son. The New International Study Bible notes explain how the first, the fourth and seventh plagues were introduced by a warning, delivered to the Pharaoh in the morning as he went out to the Nile. He and his gods were powerless in the face of the creator, who exposed those false gods as impotent. Sources: https://www.gotquestions.org/ten-plagues-Egypt.html, https://carm.org/what-type-god-would-kill-firstborn-egypt, https://answersfromthebook.org/2011/02/28/the-living-god-vs-the-gods-of-egypt/) See also: Yahweh vs. the gods of Egypt, Greek and Egyptian gods compared

Rejoinder

A good friend of ours, an Egyptologist (whom I've known for 30+ years), sent my his immediate reactions to first draft of this article: "It's all wrong. This buys into a longstanding evangelical myth that each of the Ten Plagues can be neatly identified with a specific Egyptian god (one often sees tables in commentaries as if that can prove anything).  Nothing in the Bible says each Plague was directed at a specific Egyptian god, instead of the Egyptian gods in general and as a whole.  In fact, the strangely little-quoted Exodus 12:12 verse seems to indicate that it was the 10th Plague, Death of the Firstborn, that constituted God's judgment executed on (all) the gods of Egypt, and arguably nothing more specific than that.  When Exodus 12:12 is quoted, it is only the part about executing judgment and omits the part indicating that the Plague on the Firstborn is the judgment and not necessarily all 10 Plagues. 

This is an evangelical academic myth concocted to look clever but is sheer nonsense based on no actual evidence instead of invention -- notice how no actual Egyptian hieroglyphic documents are ever quoted and few if any Egyptology publications are ever cited.  It is a sleazy effort to bamboozle the masses, the vast crowd of ignorant and gullible Christians.  There is no methodology, no rigor, no real evidence, just glitzy baseless assertions. 

And it amounts to a corrupt evangelical evasion of any and all responsibility to do even a simple literature search to find the hundreds of professional Egyptology, archaeology and Biblical scholarship publications since 1844 pointing to Egyptian records, documents, and back-references to the Exodus as an actual event.  This is the elephant in the room ignored by incompetent or dishonest evangelical "scholars."  I'm frankly sick and tired of it, it is shameful and despicable. 

If each Plague is a specific "judgment" against a specific Egyptian god, shouldn't the "judgment" as in a court of law NAME the specific defendant being "judged" and exactly which count of the indictment is being applied to that NAMED defendant??  Specificity is a double-edged sword, it cuts both ways, and again the Bible never says anything about a specificity (except of course to the extent that Exodus 12:12 is directed through the specific 10th Plague but not naming specific gods).  This one-to-one specificity claim is made up out of whole cloth -- again as if trying to evade the powerful and striking evidence of actual Egyptian records of the Exodus, a much more important fact than any purported one-to-one deity judgment. 

This stock claim of conservative evangelical literature is tendentious and amounts to one huge hand waving argument based on far fetched, stretched or outright false assertions that cannot be found in Egyptological evidence.  Except for Ra, who really was the Egyptian sun-god (and there is abundant evidence for it), and more importantly Ra was the chief deity of the Egyptian pantheon, hence a good argument can be made that the 9th Plague, of Darkness, was directed at blacking out Ra and his sunlight, but it is still just an argument and an interpretation not stated specifically in the Bible. A counterargument can be made that this Anti-Ra Plague against Egypt's No. 1 god should have been the 1st Plague or the last and ultimate, 10th Plague, not the 9th, if Ra was No 1. 

A weaker argument could be made that the 5th Plague, on Livestock, was directed at Apis and Hathor, who were loosely identified with cattle. But the 6th Plague, of Boils / Skin Disease, and the 7th / Hail & Fire, also afflicted cattle, thus weakening the whole argument about the 5th Plague being specifically targeted at supposed "cattle gods."  Heqet was not a god of frogs just because she was sometimes depicted with a frog head, but was a goddess of magic and childbirth. 

But there were no Egyptian "gods" of gnats, skin, hail or locusts -- as often tacitly admitted by evangelical commentators through their silence or their skipping over of these plagues with no gods being named.  The efforts of the remaining commentators to try to force these onto various alleged Egyptian gods of dust and sky are pathetically hollow and vacuous, and again without evidence. 

By the way, there was no "lightning" stated in the 7th Plague, the Plague of Hail and Fire (NOT Lightning). The Hebrew in Exodus 9:23-24 clearly states it was hail mingled with "fire" (Heb. aish or 'esh) NOT "lightning" (barak), two totally different Hebrew words. 

Lightning does not "walk" (halak) along the ground (!!) (Exodus 9:23) but evangelical "scholars" don't care about science or Scripture.  For God's sake the pagan Egyptian hieroglyphic records confirm there was strange "fire" burning up and going forth in the land in the Exodus, not lightning! We have Egyptian eyewitness color pictures of the red pillar of fire at the Parting of the (Fiery) Red Sea (Egyptian "Yam Nesret") and they blamed this fiery entity, in the Egyptian hieroglyphic caption to the striking picture, for the opening of the corridor through the "knife-cut" sea! 

This is just another longstanding bogus evangelical argument reaching into outright fraudulent "modern" mistranslation of the Word of God, whose sacredness apparently doesn't mean much to them.  These bogus "conservative" so-called Christian "scholars" who don't do any actual "scholarship," are blatantly compromising with anti-supernatural naturalism, to reduce the miraculous to natural phenomena (they openly admit this and try to justify it!).  

Thus they willfully mistranslate "fire" as naturalistic "lightning" in our Bibles and deliberately ignore the scriptural evidence in the very same verse testifying to the "fire" walking along the ground, which lightning cannot do, and thus refutes their dishonest naturalistic compromise.  In fact I have seen some deliberately omit the Words of God, the part about fire "walking" along the ground (completely omitted in Living Bible and Message Bible without even a phony mistranslated substitute like "struck the ground," or "flashed down to," or "came down on," or "fell to," etc.), apparently because that would refute the fraudulent anti-supernaturalist "lightning" mistranslation. 

"Proving" the supernatural with the natural is what they are doing, they say, without putting it quite so blatantly:  They say that if they can show a Plague-like natural phenomenon actually occurs in Egypt then this "supports" the Bible's account, without mentioning of course that it destroys the miraculousness of the Plague or that it thereby disproves the inerrancy of Scripture (a few try to spin doctor the "translation" to "save" inerrancy, in a forced-fit exercise).  

They started heavily in the 19th century then accelerated with Greta Hort's pseudo-scientific pack of lies in 1957 claiming that two (nonexistent in Egypt) so-scientifically and authoritatively named species of purportedly red algae (they are green not red) caused the Plague of Blood, after The Ten Commandments movie in 1956 had the "Pharaoh" (Yul Brynner) suggest the "blood" was a natural phenomenon of "red mud" (no such thing in the Nile) or vaguely something (the red mud? or something else?) that may have "poisoned" the water (as a disease?) or later killed fish and frogs that spread "disease."  

So the "scholarly" world especially "evangelical scholars" took their cue from Hollywood fiction and transformed it -- dishonestly without crediting the movie but covering up that fact -- into "science."  Actual science shows (in research I published in 2004-5) that no such algae species have ever been found in Egypt, the Nile, or East Africa, and they cannot possibly survive in the rushing tropical Nile river as they are fragile subarctic algae only found barely able to survive in stagnant, unmoving high-latitude alpine lakes -- nothing like the warm, high flow-rate, high volume Nile habitat in the second greatest river on the planet.  And the two algae species, Haematococcus pluvialis and Euglena sanguinea, are not actually red but green (one has a tiny red spot in a huge green cell).  So much for evangelical "science."

Another good friend of mine for more than three decades is Bryce Self, a Bible scholar whom I lean on regularly. Bryce sorta agrees:

Yes, we’ve discussed this previously — it is specifically in the instructions given regarding preparation for the passover event that the Lord says in Exodus 12:12 (NKJV), "For I will pass through the land of Egypt on that night, and will strike all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both man and beast; and against all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgment: I am the LORD.” That is the only time it is mentioned through the entire account.

The judgment is upon the gods of the Egyptians collectively as a pantheon, and particularly only (or most pointedly) through the plague of the firstborn. There is no historical or mythological basis outside of Scripture to suggest a one-to-one correspondence of the entire series of plagues, each to be coordinated to a particular pagan deity. And as our colleague says, it is a scholarly confection and affectation with no exegetical foundation in the Scriptural narrative itself.

All the world empires throughout history (including our own) are subsumed into in the ravenous and beastly-natured creatures of the four empires of Daniel’s visions. Only the coming Son of Man can name and subdue the beasts of this howling wilderness, as the first man did in the garden.

Back in the '70's I was privileged to make thirteen trips to Egypt. Three times I led a team to apply Modern Geophysical Technology to the Service of Egyptology there. Back then I got acquainted with the above-mentioned friend's groundbreaking work establishing the historicity of the Exodus--and the correct date of the Exodus.

In 1983 we were able to take our equipment to Israel for some grand adventures there. That first trip to Israel led to far more than we expected, including our geophysical work on the Temple Mount. A separate web site on the Temple Mount came online in 1975 and is still alive and well. I am no scholar!

Biblical Archaeology 101
with Ted Wright

If you know nothing about Biblical Archaeology or Ancient History the above video is required
if you expect to graduate with Honors at the Judgment Seat of Christ,

Tom Constable's Commentaries on the Bible are Five Star. Here is what he says about the confrontation between Moses and Pharaoh:

"God's method of dealing with individuals was by providing opportunities and choices. We can see this most easily in God's dealing with the two major characters in Exodus: Moses and Pharaoh. God's method of dealing with both men was the same, but their responses were different and, consequently, so were their fates.

Pharaoh was a strong, worldly-wise leader who acted wholly by sight rather than by faith in Yahweh. He is typical of people of the world. God's method of dealing with him was to give him opportunities to make the right choices, and so experience the blessing of God. Pharaoh chose not to trust God, and his disobedience resulted in personal tragedy for himself and national tragedy for Egypt, which he led.

Moses, on the other hand, was also a strong, wise leader, but he acted by faith rather than by sight—eventually (Heb. 11:27). God's method of dealing with him, in Exodus, was the same as His method of dealing with Pharaoh. That is, He gave Moses opportunities to make the right choices, and so experience God's blessing. Moses chose to trust and obey God, and his life is a story of personal triumph and national triumph for Israel, which he led.

In both cases, God patiently worked with these representative individuals, and gently encouraged them to do His will. Moses developed into a noble character, because he chose to submit to God's government, even though he was faulty, fearful, and failing. Pharaoh was a more "admirable" person in some worldly respects, but he sank into destruction, because he chose to refuse to submit to God's government (authoritative rule)."

This section with footnotes is also from Dr, Constable commenting on the summary verses of 11:9-10, and encapulating the entire processs.

11:9-10: "These two verses are considered by many commentators as redundant or misplaced. But they can easily be explained as a summary and epilogue of the Section of the Plagues.

Then the Lord said to Moses, “Pharaoh will not listen to you, that my wonders may be multiplied in the land of Egypt.” Moses and Aaron did all these wonders before Pharaoh, and the Lord hardened Pharaoh’s heart, and he did not let the people of Israel go out of his land.

"In the following section not only the course of events will change, but also the background and the dramatis personae. Till now the central theme was the negotiations conducted by Moses and Aaron on the one hand, and Pharaoh and his servants on the other, in Pharaoh's palace or its environs. But henceforth the principal hero of the drama will be the people of Israel in its totality, and the perspective will be enlarged. Moses and Aaron will no longer be sent to Pharaoh but to the Israelites, in order to prepare them for the exodus and to implement it; nor will they be enjoined again to perform acts for the purpose of bringing the plagues, for the last plague will take place of its own accord, through the instrumentality of the angel of the Lord. Since the episode about to be narrated represents a new theme, and one, moreover, of fundamental importance, it is desirable [sic] that before reading this account we should look back for a moment, and review generally the events that have taken place thus far, as well as the situation obtaining at the conclusion of those events. This review is provided for us in the verses under consideration."[282]

The theological lesson that Pharaoh and the Egyptians were to learn from this plague, was that Yahweh would destroy the "gods" that the Egyptians' gods supposedly procreated (i.e., all their firstborn sons). Pharaoh was a supposed "god," and so was his firstborn son who would succeed him. The Egyptians attributed the power to procreate to various gods. Fertility was a "power" for which the Egyptians, as well as all ancient peoples, depended on their gods. By killing the firstborn, Yahweh was demonstrating His sovereignty once again. However, this plague had more far-reaching consequences, and was therefore more significant than all the previous plagues combined.

"Possibly no land in antiquity was more obsessed with death than Egypt. The real power of the priesthood lay in its alleged ability to guarantee the dead a safe passage to the 'Western World' under the benign rule of Osiris. This terrible visitation which defied and defies all rational explanation, showed that Yahweh was not only lord of the forces of nature, but also of life and death."[283]

"… it is by means of the account of the last plague that the author is able to introduce into the Exodus narrative in a clear and precise way the notion of redemption from sin and death. The idea of salvation from slavery and deliverance from Egypt is manifest throughout the early chapters of Exodus. The idea of redemption and salvation from death, however, is the particular contribution of the last plague, especially as the last plague is worked into the narrative by the author. …

"By means of the last plague, then, the writer is able to bring the Exodus narratives into the larger framework of the whole Pentateuch and particularly that of the early chapters of Genesis. In the midst of the judgment of death, God provided a way of salvation for the promised seed (Ge 3:15). Like Enoch (5:22-24), Noah (6:9), and Lot (19:16-19), those who walk in God's way will be saved from death and destruction."[284]

This tenth plague brought Yahweh's concentrated "education" of both the Egyptians and the Israelites to a climactic conclusion.

"In short, therefore, what were the essential purposes of these ten plagues? First of all, they were certainly designed to free the people of God. Second, they were a punishment upon Egypt for her portion in the long oppression of the Hebrews [cf. Gen. 15:13]. Third, they were designed to demonstrate the foolishness of idolatry. They were a supreme example both for the Egyptians and for Israel. It was by these that Jehovah revealed His uniqueness in a way that had never before been revealed (6:3; cf. 10:2). Finally, the plagues clearly demonstrated the awesome, sovereign power of God. In the Book of Genesis, God is described as the Creator of the heavens and the earth and all the laws of nature. In the Book of Exodus the exercise of that creative power is revealed as it leads to the accomplishment of divine goals. God's sovereignty is not only exercised over the forces of nature, but is also revealed against evil nations and their rulers."[285]

"They [the plagues] touched every phase of nature: mineral, animal, vegetable, human. They affected persons and property, and included all, from the highest to the lowest."[286]

"A few clues exist for determining the length of time between the first and last plagues. While no certain conclusion can be reached, the probable time is just under six months."[287]

These plagues came upon Egypt when this nation was at the apex of its imperial supremacy, under Amenhotep II. Interestingly, several of the judgments in the Great Tribulation, especially the bowl judgments (Rev. 16), are similar to these plagues in Egypt. God will again do similar acts of judgment and demonstrate His sovereignty in the future, but on a worldwide scale.

The following catena of  citations about Pharoah’s heart-hardening demonstrates that throughout the narrative, the point is always the confrontation between Moses as the Lord’s representative and the king, himself worshipped as a deity, as embodiment of Epypt and its pantheon. That is the only sense in which the plagues as an entire series were directed asgainst the gods of the land. The pagan gods are only mentioned in connection with the unique and climactic plague of the firstborn—the one which finally impacts the Pharaoh personally and prompts him to allow the Hebrews to depart at last.

And, as noted in the citations, the process of contfrontation with the king does not end with the people’s exit from Egypt. It continues with his subsequent pursuit of them, only now Moses no longer acts as mediator and the God of the Hebrews confronts Pharaoh directly—with the entirely predictable outcome of the king and his army being obliterated. As Dr. Constable says, it is all about being Pharoah being confronted with personal choices, in which he hardens his heart during each of the first five plagues, before the Lord progressively enhances that hardening through the final five plagues— before the issue is settled at last in the waters of the Red Sea.

From Bryce Self: Foreseen and told to Moses at the burning bush...

Exodus 3:19-20 (NKJV) But I am sure that the king of Egypt will not let you go, no, not even by a mighty hand. So I will stretch out My hand and strike Egypt with all My wonders which I will do in its midst; and after that he will let you go.

Later dispatch of Moses from Midian to Egypt, hardening foretold again, emphasis on final plague of firstborn...

Exodus 4:21-23 (NKJV) And the LORD said to Moses, “When you go back to Egypt, see that you do all those wonders before Pharaoh which I have put in your hand. But I will harden his heart, so that he will not let the people go. Then you shall say to Pharaoh, ‘Thus says the LORD: “Israel is My son, My firstborn. 23 I say to you, let My son go that he may serve Me. But if you refuse to let him go, indeed I will kill your son, your firstborn.

Moses’ complains about initial rejection & added demands on Israel, focus is on Pharaoh (not the gods)…

Exodus 6:1 (NKJV) Then the LORD said to Moses, “Now you shall see what I will do to Pharaoh. For with a strong hand he will let them go, and with a strong hand he will drive them out of his land.”

Aaron & Moses sent back again, knowing Pharaoh will say no, wonders upon the Egyptians (not their gods)… Exodus 7:3-5 (NKJV)

And I will harden Pharaoh’s heart, and multiply My signs and My wonders in the land of Egypt. But Pharaoh will not heed you, so that I may lay My hand on Egypt and bring My armies and My people, the children of Israel, out of the land of Egypt by great judgments. And the Egyptians shall know that I am the LORD, when I stretch out My hand on Egypt and bring out the children of Israel from among them.”

At the initial sign of Aaron’s rod, Pharaoh hardens his heart, first plague is the consequence…

Exodus 7:13-15 (NKJV) And Pharaoh’s heart grew hard, and he did not heed them, as the LORD had said. So the LORD said to Moses: “Pharaoh’s heart is hard; he refuses to let the people go. Go to Pharaoh in the morning, when he goes out to the water, and you shall stand by the river’s bank to meet him…

First Plague - Water Turned to Blood, Pharaoh’s Response… Exodus 7:22-23 (NKJV)

Then the magicians of Egypt did so with their enchantments; and Pharaoh’s heart grew hard, and he did not heed them, as the LORD had said. And Pharaoh turned and went into his house. Neither was his heart moved by this.

Second Plague - Frogs, Relieved by Moses’ intercession, Pharaoh’s response…

Exodus 8:15 (NKJV) But when Pharaoh saw that there was relief, he hardened his heart and did not heed them, as the LORD had said.

Third Plague - Lice, Magician’s failure, Pharaoh’s response…

Exodus 8:19 (NKJV) Then the magicians said to Pharaoh, “This is the finger of God.” But Pharaoh’s heart grew hard, and he did not heed them, just as the LORD had said. (Note, this is the same “finger of God” Jesus says He exercised among the Jewish people in miracles that brought judgment on hardening hearts, see Luke 11:20)

Fourth Plague - Flies. Moses Intercedes again, Pharaoh hardens his heart again…

Exodus 8:31-32 (NKJV) And the LORD did according to the word of Moses; He removed the swarms of flies from Pharaoh, from his servants, and from his people. Not one remained. 32 But Pharaoh hardened his heart at this time also; neither would he let the people go.

Fifth Plague - Murrain, Cattle of only the Egyptians die, Pharaoh’s response… Exodus 9:7 (NKJV)

Then Pharaoh sent, and indeed, not even one of the livestock of the Israelites was dead. But the heart of Pharaoh became hard, and he did not let the people go.

Sixth Plague - Boils, Change from Pharaoh hardening his own heart to God doing it… Exodus 9:12 (NKJV) But the LORD hardened the heart of Pharaoh; and he did not heed them, just as the LORD had spoken to Moses.

Seventh Plague - Hail, Purpose statement for this judgment, relief to come as a sign to Pharaoh (not his gods), Pharaoh’s response to harden his heart yet more, and that is reinforced by God...

Exodus 9:16-17 (NKJV) But indeed for this purpose I have raised you up, that I may show My power in you, and that My name may be declared in all the earth. As yet you exalt yourself against My people in that you will not let them go. Exodus 9:29 (NKJV) So Moses said to him, “As soon as I have gone out of the city, I will spread out my hands to the LORD; the thunder will cease, and there will be no more hail, that you may know that the earth is the LORD’s. Exodus 9:34-35 (NKJV) And when Pharaoh saw that the rain, the hail, and the thunder had ceased, he sinned yet more; and he hardened his heart, he and his servants. So the heart of Pharaoh was hard; neither would he let the children of Israel go, as the LORD had spoken by Moses.

Eighth Plague - Locusts, God’s hardening Pharaoh in order to show His own power, relief again with Moses’ intercession, and God again hardens Pharaoh’s heart...

Exodus 10:1-2 (NKJV) Now the LORD said to Moses, “Go in to Pharaoh; for I have hardened his heart and the hearts of his servants, that I may show these signs of Mine before him, and that you may tell in the hearing of your son and your son’s son the mighty things I have done in Egypt, and My signs which I have done among them, that you may know that I am the LORD.” Exodus 10:19-20 (NKJV) And the LORD turned a very strong west wind, which took the locusts away and blew them into the Red Sea. There remained not one locust in all the territory of Egypt. 20 But the LORD hardened Pharaoh’s heart, and he did not let the children of Israel go.

Ninth Plague - Darkness, Third hardening by God alone, end of interviews and the series of only nine plagues (the Passover is not counted among the number of the plagues due to its special character)…

Exodus 10:27-29 (NKJV) But the LORD hardened Pharaoh’s heart, and he would not let them go. Then Pharaoh said to him, “Get away from me! Take heed to yourself and see my face no more! For in the day you see my face you shall die!” So Moses said, “You have spoken well. I will never see your face again.”

The Unique & Separate Plague - death of the Egypt’s firstborn & Israel’s Passover, end of final interview, and summary statement of the entire process...

Exodus 11:1 (NKJV) And the LORD said to Moses, “I will bring one more plague on Pharaoh and on Egypt. Afterward he will let you go from here. When he lets you go, he will surely drive you out of here altogether. Exodus 11:8-10 (NKJV) Then he went out from Pharaoh in great anger. But the LORD said to Moses, “Pharaoh will not heed you, so that My wonders may be multiplied in the land of Egypt.” So Moses and Aaron did all these wonders before Pharaoh; and the LORD hardened Pharaoh’s heart, and he did not let the children of Israel go out of his land.

Instructions for the Passover, this is the ONLY statement of the intention of judgment on the gods of Egypt, and it is given to the ISRAELITES not to Pharaoh and the Egyptians — so the significance of the Egyptian deities being judged was as a demonstration to God's own people, not to the pagans…

Exodus 12:12-13 (NKJV) For I will pass through the land of Egypt on that night, and will strike all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both man and beast; and against all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgment: I am the LORD. Now the blood shall be a sign for you on the houses where you are. And when I see the blood, I will pass over you; and the plague shall not be on you to destroy you when I strike the land of Egypt.

Commemoration of the First Passover, and dedication of the Firstborn is instructed, specifically recalling Pharaoh’s hardness, with no mention of his gods or judgment on them…

Exodus 13:14-15 (NKJV) So it shall be, when your son asks you in time to come, saying, ‘What is this?’ that you shall say to him, By strength of hand the LORD brought us out of Egypt, out of the house of bondage. And it came to pass, when Pharaoh was stubborn about letting us go, that the LORD killed all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both the firstborn of man and the firstborn of beast.

Pharaoh’s hardening of heart continues BEYOND THE PLAGUES, his pursuit of Israel into the wilderness brought the final judgment of death upon him in the Red Sea with his army. HE was the god of Egypt being judged through it all, and now all his chief servants join him in hardness of heart...

Exodus 14:2-5 (NKJV) “Speak to the children of Israel, that they turn and camp before Pi Hahiroth, between Migdol and the sea, opposite Baal Zephon; you shall camp before it by the sea. For Pharaoh will say of the children of Israel, They are bewildered by the land; the wilderness has closed them in.’ Then I will harden Pharaoh’s heart, so that he will pursue them; and I will gain honor over Pharaoh and over all his army, that the Egyptians may know that I am the LORD.” And they did so. Now it was told the king of Egypt that the people had fled, and the heart of Pharaoh and his servants was turned against the people; and they said, “Why have we done this, that we have let Israel go from serving us?

God hardens the hearts of the Egyptians (Pharaoh and his army) to destroy thenm in the sea, the Lord is glorified in their deaths )not over the gods of Egypt)…

Exodus 14:16-18 (NKJV) But lift up your rod, and stretch out your hand over the sea and divide it. And the children of Israel shall go on dry ground through the midst of the sea. And I indeed will harden the hearts of the Egyptians, and they shall follow them. So I will gain honor over Pharaoh and over all his army, his chariots, and his horsemen. Then the Egyptians shall know that I am the LORD, when I have gained honor for Myself over Pharaoh, his chariots, and his horsemen.”

The result is for the Israelites to believe in God and His prophet Moses, and triumph over Pharoah and the Egyptian army (not Egypt’s Gods) is the gist of the Song of Moses and Miriam that follows…

Exodus 14:30-31 (NKJV) So the LORD saved Israel that day out of the hand of the Egyptians, and Israel saw the Egyptians dead on the seashore. Thus Israel saw the great work which the LORD had done in Egypt; so the people feared the LORD, and believed the LORD and His servant Moses. Exodus 15:1 (NKJV) Then Moses and the children of Israel sang this song to the LORD, and spoke, saying: “I will sing to the LORD, For He has triumphed gloriously! The horse and its rider He has thrown into the sea!

And in the later narrative recounting, plus the Psalms, it is the victory over Pharaoh that is celebrated, not the gods of Egypt.

My friend of many years, Derek Gilbert, sent the following comments related to the above notes:

Your analysis here is right on. In fact, I referred to it for guidance when I analyzed the plagues of Egypt during my study before writing The Great Inception a few years ago and realized that the gods of Egypt during the sojourn, and for a couple of hundred years after the Exodus, were not exclusively Egyptian gods.

It is known by archaeologists that Semitic deities such as Baal, Qedesh (Astarte/Ishtar), and Resheph were venerated by pharaohs as late as Ramesses II, who erected the 400 Year Stela to honor his father, Seti I. The inscription shows Seti presenting an offering to Set, who is depicted in the form of the Syrian weather-god (i.e., human), not as the anteater-headed entity known from inscriptions carved about a thousand years later.

Douglas Petrovich authored a convincing paper more than a decade ago identifying Amenhotep II as the pharaoh of the Exodus. Amenhotep is known to have adopted Resheph, a plague-god and protector of chariot warriors, as his personal deity. I believe this is why God chose a series of plagues to compel Amenhotep to let Israel go. Furthermore, God directed Moses and Joshua to go to Mount Ebal and Mount Gerazim to set up an altar and proclaim His blessings and curses. Those hills overlook Shechem. A text from ancient Ebla reveals that Shechem was one of the cities sacred to Resheph. (Also, the oak of Moreh overlooks the city, where God appeared to Abram and where Jacob buried the teraphim Rachel stole from Laban.)

Also, the location of the Red Sea crossing, in front of Baal-zephon, is significant. Baal’s sacred mountain was Zaphon, near Antioch, and he was the patron deity of sailors due to his victory over the sea-god Yamm in their struggle for supremacy in the Amorite pantheon. Yahweh demonstrated His power over this lesser elohim in front of a place sacred to Baal, and by subduing, in spectacular fashion, what was supposed to be Baal’s domain.

I would suggest that the seventh plague was more supernatural than we’ve been taught. Fire was no doubt involved, but the account in Psalm 78 opens some fascinating speculation:

Psalm 78:48  He gave over their cattle to the hail and their flocks to thunderbolts.  49  He let loose on them his burning anger, wrath, indignation, and distress, a company of destroying angels.  50  He made a path for his anger; he did not spare them from death, but gave their lives over to the plague. 
 The Holy Bible: English Standard Version. (2016). (Ps 78:48–50). Wheaton, IL: Crossway Bibles.

The word rendered “thunderbolts” by the ESV translators is reshephim. Given that the following verse refers to “a company of destroying angels,” it’s worth considering whether the “fire” or “thunderbolts” were weapons wielded by a heretofore unacknowledged class of “destroying angel,” the reshephim. (One quarter of ancient Sidon was called “land of the Reshephs,” so this concept is not completely out of left field.) “Hail” is Barad, another demonic entity known to the western Semites, as is Deber (“plague”). Interestingly, Deber (“pestilence”) and Resheph (“plague”) are also mentioned together in Habakkuk 3:5.

In Christ, your colleague,

Derek
Derek Gilbert
SkyWatchTV

Three rulers who typify the devil as the god of this world are the kings of Egypt, Tyre, and Babylon = political, commercial, and religious (all three aspects  combined and consummated, in Mystery Babylon the Great under the man of lawlessness in Revelation)

Coming Soon: Exodus Series by Bryce Self

Extra Credit: History of Disputes about the Exodus by Alan Montgomery
Towards a Biblically Inerrant Chronology, by Alan Montgomery
Other Papers by Alan Montgomery

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The Left Hand of God
Intervention from a Higher Power
When a Nation Dies
The Antichrist: Coming Leader of the World
The Management of the Universe
Glimpses of Jesus
The Face of God
The Near Future of Planet Earth
Times and Seasons
A Joint in Time

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